Wanyu Du


2022

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Understanding Iterative Revision from Human-Written Text
Wanyu Du | Vipul Raheja | Dhruv Kumar | Zae Myung Kim | Melissa Lopez | Dongyeop Kang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Writing is, by nature, a strategic, adaptive, and, more importantly, an iterative process. A crucial part of writing is editing and revising the text. Previous works on text revision have focused on defining edit intention taxonomies within a single domain or developing computational models with a single level of edit granularity, such as sentence-level edits, which differ from human’s revision cycles. This work describes IteraTeR: the first large-scale, multi-domain, edit-intention annotated corpus of iteratively revised text. In particular, IteraTeR is collected based on a new framework to comprehensively model the iterative text revisions that generalizes to a variety of domains, edit intentions, revision depths, and granularities. When we incorporate our annotated edit intentions, both generative and action-based text revision models significantly improve automatic evaluations. Through our work, we better understand the text revision process, making vital connections between edit intentions and writing quality, enabling the creation of diverse corpora to support computational modeling of iterative text revisions.

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Improving Iterative Text Revision by Learning Where to Edit from Other Revision Tasks
Zae Myung Kim | Wanyu Du | Vipul Raheja | Dhruv Kumar | Dongyeop Kang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Iterative text revision improves text quality by fixing grammatical errors, rephrasing for better readability or contextual appropriateness, or reorganizing sentence structures throughout a document. Most recent research has focused on understanding and classifying different types of edits in the iterative revision process from human-written text instead of building accurate and robust systems for iterative text revision. In this work, we aim to build an end-to-end text revision system that can iteratively generate helpful edits by explicitly detecting editable spans (where-to-edit) with their corresponding edit intents and then instructing a revision model to revise the detected edit spans. Leveraging datasets from other related text editing NLP tasks, combined with the specification of editable spans, leads our system to more accurately model the process of iterative text refinement, as evidenced by empirical results and human evaluations. Our system significantly outperforms previous baselines on our text revision tasks and other standard text revision tasks, including grammatical error correction, text simplification, sentence fusion, and style transfer. Through extensive qualitative and quantitative analysis, we make vital connections between edit intentions and writing quality, and better computational modeling of iterative text revisions.

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FlowEval: A Consensus-Based Dialogue Evaluation Framework Using Segment Act Flows
Jianqiao Zhao | Yanyang Li | Wanyu Du | Yangfeng Ji | Dong Yu | Michael Lyu | Liwei Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite recent progress in open-domain dialogue evaluation, how to develop automatic metrics remains an open problem. We explore the potential of dialogue evaluation featuring dialog act information, which was hardly explicitly modeled in previous methods. However, defined at the utterance level in general, dialog act is of coarse granularity, as an utterance can contain multiple segments possessing different functions. Hence, we propose segment act, an extension of dialog act from utterance level to segment level, and crowdsource a large-scale dataset for it. To utilize segment act flows, sequences of segment acts, for evaluation, we develop the first consensus-based dialogue evaluation framework, FlowEval. This framework provides a reference-free approach for dialog evaluation by finding pseudo-references. Extensive experiments against strong baselines on three benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and other desirable characteristics of our FlowEval, pointing out a potential path for better dialogue evaluation.

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Self-training with Two-phase Self-augmentation for Few-shot Dialogue Generation
Wanyu Du | Hanjie Chen | Yangfeng Ji
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

In task-oriented dialogue systems, response generation from meaning representations (MRs) often suffers from limited training examples, due to the high cost of annotating MR-to-Text pairs. Previous works on self-training leverage fine-tuned conversational models to automatically generate pseudo-labeled MR-to-Text pairs for further fine-tuning. However, some self-augmented data may be noisy or uninformative for the model to learn from. In this work, we propose a two-phase self-augmentation procedure to generate high-quality pseudo-labeled MR-to-Text pairs: the first phase selects the most informative MRs based on model’s prediction uncertainty; with the selected MRs, the second phase generates accurate responses by aggregating multiple perturbed latent representations from each MR. Empirical experiments on two benchmark datasets, FewShotWOZ and FewShotSGD, show that our method generally outperforms existing self-training methods on both automatic and human evaluations.

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Read, Revise, Repeat: A System Demonstration for Human-in-the-loop Iterative Text Revision
Wanyu Du | Zae Myung Kim | Vipul Raheja | Dhruv Kumar | Dongyeop Kang
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Intelligent and Interactive Writing Assistants (In2Writing 2022)

Revision is an essential part of the human writing process. It tends to be strategic, adaptive, and, more importantly, iterative in nature. Despite the success of large language models on text revision tasks, they are limited to non-iterative, one-shot revisions. Examining and evaluating the capability of large language models for making continuous revisions and collaborating with human writers is a critical step towards building effective writing assistants. In this work, we present a human-in-the-loop iterative text revision system, Read, Revise, Repeat (R3), which aims at achieving high quality text revisions with minimal human efforts by reading model-generated revisions and user feedbacks, revising documents, and repeating human-machine interactions. In R3, a text revision model provides text editing suggestions for human writers, who can accept or reject the suggested edits. The accepted edits are then incorporated into the model for the next iteration of document revision. Writers can therefore revise documents iteratively by interacting with the system and simply accepting/rejecting its suggested edits until the text revision model stops making further revisions or reaches a predefined maximum number of revisions. Empirical experiments show that R3 can generate revisions with comparable acceptance rate to human writers at early revision depths, and the human-machine interaction can get higher quality revisions with fewer iterations and edits. The collected human-model interaction dataset and system code are available at https://github.com/vipulraheja/IteraTeR. Our system demonstration is available at https://youtu.be/lK08tIpEoaE.

2021

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SideControl: Controlled Open-domain Dialogue Generation via Additive Side Networks
Wanyu Du | Yangfeng Ji
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Transformer-based pre-trained language models boost the performance of open-domain dialogue systems. Prior works leverage Transformer-based pre-trained language models to generate texts with desired attributes in two general approaches: (1) gradient-based methods: updating all latent representations of pre-trained models with gradients from attribute models; (2) weighted-decoding methods: re-ranking beam candidates from pre-trained models with attribute functions. However, gradient-based methods lead to high computation cost and can easily get overfitted on small training sets, while weighted-decoding methods are inherently constrained by the low-variance high-bias pre-trained model. In this work, we propose a novel approach to control the generation of Transformer-based pre-trained language models: the SideControl framework, which leverages a novel control attributes loss to incorporate useful control signals, and is shown to perform well with very limited training samples. We evaluate our proposed method on two benchmark open-domain dialogue datasets, and results show that the SideControl framework has better controllability, higher generation quality and better sample-efficiency than existing gradient-based and weighted-decoding baselines.

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Contextualizing Variation in Text Style Transfer Datasets
Stephanie Schoch | Wanyu Du | Yangfeng Ji
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

Text style transfer involves rewriting the content of a source sentence in a target style. Despite there being a number of style tasks with available data, there has been limited systematic discussion of how text style datasets relate to each other. This understanding, however, is likely to have implications for selecting multiple data sources for model training. While it is prudent to consider inherent stylistic properties when determining these relationships, we also must consider how a style is realized in a particular dataset. In this paper, we conduct several empirical analyses of existing text style datasets. Based on our results, we propose a categorization of stylistic and dataset properties to consider when utilizing or comparing text style datasets.

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The GEM Benchmark: Natural Language Generation, its Evaluation and Metrics
Sebastian Gehrmann | Tosin Adewumi | Karmanya Aggarwal | Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi | Anuoluwapo Aremu | Antoine Bosselut | Khyathi Raghavi Chandu | Miruna-Adriana Clinciu | Dipanjan Das | Kaustubh Dhole | Wanyu Du | Esin Durmus | Ondřej Dušek | Chris Chinenye Emezue | Varun Gangal | Cristina Garbacea | Tatsunori Hashimoto | Yufang Hou | Yacine Jernite | Harsh Jhamtani | Yangfeng Ji | Shailza Jolly | Mihir Kale | Dhruv Kumar | Faisal Ladhak | Aman Madaan | Mounica Maddela | Khyati Mahajan | Saad Mahamood | Bodhisattwa Prasad Majumder | Pedro Henrique Martins | Angelina McMillan-Major | Simon Mille | Emiel van Miltenburg | Moin Nadeem | Shashi Narayan | Vitaly Nikolaev | Andre Niyongabo Rubungo | Salomey Osei | Ankur Parikh | Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Niranjan Ramesh Rao | Vikas Raunak | Juan Diego Rodriguez | Sashank Santhanam | João Sedoc | Thibault Sellam | Samira Shaikh | Anastasia Shimorina | Marco Antonio Sobrevilla Cabezudo | Hendrik Strobelt | Nishant Subramani | Wei Xu | Diyi Yang | Akhila Yerukola | Jiawei Zhou
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM 2021)

We introduce GEM, a living benchmark for natural language Generation (NLG), its Evaluation, and Metrics. Measuring progress in NLG relies on a constantly evolving ecosystem of automated metrics, datasets, and human evaluation standards. Due to this moving target, new models often still evaluate on divergent anglo-centric corpora with well-established, but flawed, metrics. This disconnect makes it challenging to identify the limitations of current models and opportunities for progress. Addressing this limitation, GEM provides an environment in which models can easily be applied to a wide set of tasks and in which evaluation strategies can be tested. Regular updates to the benchmark will help NLG research become more multilingual and evolve the challenge alongside models. This paper serves as the description of the data for the 2021 shared task at the associated GEM Workshop.

2019

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An Empirical Comparison on Imitation Learning and Reinforcement Learning for Paraphrase Generation
Wanyu Du | Yangfeng Ji
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Generating paraphrases from given sentences involves decoding words step by step from a large vocabulary. To learn a decoder, supervised learning which maximizes the likelihood of tokens always suffers from the exposure bias. Although both reinforcement learning (RL) and imitation learning (IL) have been widely used to alleviate the bias, the lack of direct comparison leads to only a partial image on their benefits. In this work, we present an empirical study on how RL and IL can help boost the performance of generating paraphrases, with the pointer-generator as a base model. Experiments on the benchmark datasets show that (1) imitation learning is constantly better than reinforcement learning; and (2) the pointer-generator models with imitation learning outperform the state-of-the-art methods with a large margin.