Wasi Ahmad

Also published as: Wasi Uddin Ahmad


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CoDesc: A Large Code–Description Parallel Dataset
Masum Hasan | Tanveer Muttaqueen | Abdullah Al Ishtiaq | Kazi Sajeed Mehrab | Md. Mahim Anjum Haque | Tahmid Hasan | Wasi Ahmad | Anindya Iqbal | Rifat Shahriyar
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Retrieval Augmented Code Generation and Summarization
Md Rizwan Parvez | Wasi Ahmad | Saikat Chakraborty | Baishakhi Ray | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Software developers write a lot of source code and documentation during software development. Intrinsically, developers often recall parts of source code or code summaries that they had written in the past while implementing software or documenting them. To mimic developers’ code or summary generation behavior, we propose a retrieval augmented framework, REDCODER, that retrieves relevant code or summaries from a retrieval database and provides them as a supplement to code generation or summarization models. REDCODER has a couple of uniqueness. First, it extends the state-of-the-art dense retrieval technique to search for relevant code or summaries. Second, it can work with retrieval databases that include unimodal (only code or natural language description) or bimodal instances (code-description pairs). We conduct experiments and extensive analysis on two benchmark datasets of code generation and summarization in Java and Python, and the promising results endorse the effectiveness of our proposed retrieval augmented framework.

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Unified Pre-training for Program Understanding and Generation
Wasi Ahmad | Saikat Chakraborty | Baishakhi Ray | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Code summarization and generation empower conversion between programming language (PL) and natural language (NL), while code translation avails the migration of legacy code from one PL to another. This paper introduces PLBART, a sequence-to-sequence model capable of performing a broad spectrum of program and language understanding and generation tasks. PLBART is pre-trained on an extensive collection of Java and Python functions and associated NL text via denoising autoencoding. Experiments on code summarization in the English language, code generation, and code translation in seven programming languages show that PLBART outperforms or rivals state-of-the-art models. Moreover, experiments on discriminative tasks, e.g., program repair, clone detection, and vulnerable code detection, demonstrate PLBART’s effectiveness in program understanding. Furthermore, analysis reveals that PLBART learns program syntax, style (e.g., identifier naming convention), logical flow (e.g., “if“ block inside an “else“ block is equivalent to “else if“ block) that are crucial to program semantics and thus excels even with limited annotations.

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Select, Extract and Generate: Neural Keyphrase Generation with Layer-wise Coverage Attention
Wasi Ahmad | Xiao Bai | Soomin Lee | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural language processing techniques have demonstrated promising results in keyphrase generation. However, one of the major challenges in neural keyphrase generation is processing long documents using deep neural networks. Generally, documents are truncated before given as inputs to neural networks. Consequently, the models may miss essential points conveyed in the target document. To overcome this limitation, we propose SEG-Net, a neural keyphrase generation model that is composed of two major components, (1) a selector that selects the salient sentences in a document and (2) an extractor-generator that jointly extracts and generates keyphrases from the selected sentences. SEG-Net uses Transformer, a self-attentive architecture, as the basic building block with a novel layer-wise coverage attention to summarize most of the points discussed in the document. The experimental results on seven keyphrase generation benchmarks from scientific and web documents demonstrate that SEG-Net outperforms the state-of-the-art neural generative methods by a large margin.

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Intent Classification and Slot Filling for Privacy Policies
Wasi Ahmad | Jianfeng Chi | Tu Le | Thomas Norton | Yuan Tian | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Understanding privacy policies is crucial for users as it empowers them to learn about the information that matters to them. Sentences written in a privacy policy document explain privacy practices, and the constituent text spans convey further specific information about that practice. We refer to predicting the privacy practice explained in a sentence as intent classification and identifying the text spans sharing specific information as slot filling. In this work, we propose PolicyIE, an English corpus consisting of 5,250 intent and 11,788 slot annotations spanning 31 privacy policies of websites and mobile applications. PolicyIE corpus is a challenging real-world benchmark with limited labeled examples reflecting the cost of collecting large-scale annotations from domain experts. We present two alternative neural approaches as baselines, (1) intent classification and slot filling as a joint sequence tagging and (2) modeling them as a sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) learning task. The experiment results show that both approaches perform comparably in intent classification, while the Seq2Seq method outperforms the sequence tagging approach in slot filling by a large margin. We perform a detailed error analysis to reveal the challenges of the proposed corpus.

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Syntax-augmented Multilingual BERT for Cross-lingual Transfer
Wasi Ahmad | Haoran Li | Kai-Wei Chang | Yashar Mehdad
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In recent years, we have seen a colossal effort in pre-training multilingual text encoders using large-scale corpora in many languages to facilitate cross-lingual transfer learning. However, due to typological differences across languages, the cross-lingual transfer is challenging. Nevertheless, language syntax, e.g., syntactic dependencies, can bridge the typological gap. Previous works have shown that pre-trained multilingual encoders, such as mBERT (CITATION), capture language syntax, helping cross-lingual transfer. This work shows that explicitly providing language syntax and training mBERT using an auxiliary objective to encode the universal dependency tree structure helps cross-lingual transfer. We perform rigorous experiments on four NLP tasks, including text classification, question answering, named entity recognition, and task-oriented semantic parsing. The experiment results show that syntax-augmented mBERT improves cross-lingual transfer on popular benchmarks, such as PAWS-X and MLQA, by 1.4 and 1.6 points on average across all languages. In the generalized transfer setting, the performance boosted significantly, with 3.9 and 3.1 points on average in PAWS-X and MLQA.

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Improving Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer Learning via Robust Training
Kuan-Hao Huang | Wasi Ahmad | Nanyun Peng | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained multilingual language encoders, such as multilingual BERT and XLM-R, show great potential for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. However, these multilingual encoders do not precisely align words and phrases across languages. Especially, learning alignments in the multilingual embedding space usually requires sentence-level or word-level parallel corpora, which are expensive to be obtained for low-resource languages. An alternative is to make the multilingual encoders more robust; when fine-tuning the encoder using downstream task, we train the encoder to tolerate noise in the contextual embedding spaces such that even if the representations of different languages are not aligned well, the model can still achieve good performance on zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. In this work, we propose a learning strategy for training robust models by drawing connections between adversarial examples and the failure cases of zero-shot cross-lingual transfer. We adopt two widely used robust training methods, adversarial training and randomized smoothing, to train the desired robust model. The experimental results demonstrate that robust training improves zero-shot cross-lingual transfer on text classification tasks. The improvement is more significant in the generalized cross-lingual transfer setting, where the pair of input sentences belong to two different languages.


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PolicyQA: A Reading Comprehension Dataset for Privacy Policies
Wasi Ahmad | Jianfeng Chi | Yuan Tian | Kai-Wei Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Privacy policy documents are long and verbose. A question answering (QA) system can assist users in finding the information that is relevant and important to them. Prior studies in this domain frame the QA task as retrieving the most relevant text segment or a list of sentences from the policy document given a question. On the contrary, we argue that providing users with a short text span from policy documents reduces the burden of searching the target information from a lengthy text segment. In this paper, we present PolicyQA, a dataset that contains 25,017 reading comprehension style examples curated from an existing corpus of 115 website privacy policies. PolicyQA provides 714 human-annotated questions written for a wide range of privacy practices. We evaluate two existing neural QA models and perform rigorous analysis to reveal the advantages and challenges offered by PolicyQA.

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A Transformer-based Approach for Source Code Summarization
Wasi Ahmad | Saikat Chakraborty | Baishakhi Ray | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Generating a readable summary that describes the functionality of a program is known as source code summarization. In this task, learning code representation by modeling the pairwise relationship between code tokens to capture their long-range dependencies is crucial. To learn code representation for summarization, we explore the Transformer model that uses a self-attention mechanism and has shown to be effective in capturing long-range dependencies. In this work, we show that despite the approach is simple, it outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques by a significant margin. We perform extensive analysis and ablation studies that reveal several important findings, e.g., the absolute encoding of source code tokens’ position hinders, while relative encoding significantly improves the summarization performance. We have made our code publicly available to facilitate future research.


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Cross-Lingual Dependency Parsing with Unlabeled Auxiliary Languages
Wasi Uddin Ahmad | Zhisong Zhang | Xuezhe Ma | Kai-Wei Chang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

Cross-lingual transfer learning has become an important weapon to battle the unavailability of annotated resources for low-resource languages. One of the fundamental techniques to transfer across languages is learning language-agnostic representations, in the form of word embeddings or contextual encodings. In this work, we propose to leverage unannotated sentences from auxiliary languages to help learning language-agnostic representations. Specifically, we explore adversarial training for learning contextual encoders that produce invariant representations across languages to facilitate cross-lingual transfer. We conduct experiments on cross-lingual dependency parsing where we train a dependency parser on a source language and transfer it to a wide range of target languages. Experiments on 28 target languages demonstrate that adversarial training significantly improves the overall transfer performances under several different settings. We conduct a careful analysis to evaluate the language-agnostic representations resulted from adversarial training.

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On Difficulties of Cross-Lingual Transfer with Order Differences: A Case Study on Dependency Parsing
Wasi Ahmad | Zhisong Zhang | Xuezhe Ma | Eduard Hovy | Kai-Wei Chang | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Different languages might have different word orders. In this paper, we investigate crosslingual transfer and posit that an orderagnostic model will perform better when transferring to distant foreign languages. To test our hypothesis, we train dependency parsers on an English corpus and evaluate their transfer performance on 30 other languages. Specifically, we compare encoders and decoders based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and modified self-attentive architectures. The former relies on sequential information while the latter is more flexible at modeling word order. Rigorous experiments and detailed analysis shows that RNN-based architectures transfer well to languages that are close to English, while self-attentive models have better overall cross-lingual transferability and perform especially well on distant languages.


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A Corpus to Learn Refer-to-as Relations for Nominals
Wasi Ahmad | Kai-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)