One desiderata of topic modeling is to produce interpretable topics. Given a cluster of document-tokens comprising a topic, we can order the topic by counting each word. It is natural to think that each topic could easily be labeled by looking at the words with the highest word count. However, this is not always the case. A human evaluator can often have difficulty identifying a single label that accurately describes the topic as many top words seem unrelated. This paper aims to improve interpretability in topic modeling by providing a novel, outperforming interpretable topic model Our approach combines two previously established subdomains in topic modeling: nonparametric and weakly-supervised topic models. Given a nonparametric topic model, we can include weakly-supervised input using novel modifications to the nonparametric generative model. These modifications lay the groundwork for a compelling setting—one in which most corpora, without any previous supervised or weakly-supervised input, can discover interpretable topics. This setting also presents various challenging sub-problems of which we provide resolutions. Combining nonparametric topic models with weakly-supervised topic models leads to an exciting discovery—a complete, self-contained and outperforming topic model for interpretability.
Predicting missing facts in a knowledge graph (KG) is crucial as modern KGs are far from complete. Due to labor-intensive human labeling, this phenomenon deteriorates when handling knowledge represented in various languages. In this paper, we explore multilingual KG completion, which leverages limited seed alignment as a bridge, to embrace the collective knowledge from multiple languages. However, language alignment used in prior works is still not fully exploited: (1) alignment pairs are treated equally to maximally push parallel entities to be close, which ignores KG capacity inconsistency; (2) seed alignment is scarce and new alignment identification is usually in a noisily unsupervised manner. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel self-supervised adaptive graph alignment (SS-AGA) method. Specifically, SS-AGA fuses all KGs as a whole graph by regarding alignment as a new edge type. As such, information propagation and noise influence across KGs can be adaptively controlled via relation-aware attention weights. Meanwhile, SS-AGA features a new pair generator that dynamically captures potential alignment pairs in a self-supervised paradigm. Extensive experiments on both the public multilingual DBPedia KG and newly-created industrial multilingual E-commerce KG empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of SS-AGA
While BERT is an effective method for learning monolingual sentence embeddings for semantic similarity and embedding based transfer learning BERT based cross-lingual sentence embeddings have yet to be explored. We systematically investigate methods for learning multilingual sentence embeddings by combining the best methods for learning monolingual and cross-lingual representations including: masked language modeling (MLM), translation language modeling (TLM), dual encoder translation ranking, and additive margin softmax. We show that introducing a pre-trained multilingual language model dramatically reduces the amount of parallel training data required to achieve good performance by 80%. Composing the best of these methods produces a model that achieves 83.7% bi-text retrieval accuracy over 112 languages on Tatoeba, well above the 65.5% achieved by LASER, while still performing competitively on monolingual transfer learning benchmarks. Parallel data mined from CommonCrawl using our best model is shown to train competitive NMT models for en-zh and en-de. We publicly release our best multilingual sentence embedding model for 109+ languages at https://tfhub.dev/google/LaBSE.
Representations of events described in text are important for various tasks. In this work, we present SWCC: a Simultaneous Weakly supervised Contrastive learning and Clustering framework for event representation learning. SWCC learns event representations by making better use of co-occurrence information of events. Specifically, we introduce a weakly supervised contrastive learning method that allows us to consider multiple positives and multiple negatives, and a prototype-based clustering method that avoids semantically related events being pulled apart. For model training, SWCC learns representations by simultaneously performing weakly supervised contrastive learning and prototype-based clustering. Experimental results show that SWCC outperforms other baselines on Hard Similarity and Transitive Sentence Similarity tasks. In addition, a thorough analysis of the prototype-based clustering method demonstrates that the learned prototype vectors are able to implicitly capture various relations between events.
Humans can systematically generalize to novel compositions of existing concepts. Recent studies argue that neural networks appear inherently ineffective in such cognitive capacity, leading to a pessimistic view and a lack of attention to optimistic results. We revisit this controversial topic from the perspective of meaningful learning, an exceptional capability of humans to learn novel concepts by connecting them with known ones. We reassess the compositional skills of sequence-to-sequence models conditioned on the semantic links between new and old concepts. Our observations suggest that models can successfully one-shot generalize to novel concepts and compositions through semantic linking, either inductively or deductively. We demonstrate that prior knowledge plays a key role as well. In addition to synthetic tests, we further conduct proof-of-concept experiments in machine translation and semantic parsing, showing the benefits of meaningful learning in applications. We hope our positive findings will encourage excavating modern neural networks’ potential in systematic generalization through more advanced learning schemes.
Keyphrase extraction (KPE) automatically extracts phrases in a document that provide a concise summary of the core content, which benefits downstream information retrieval and NLP tasks. Previous state-of-the-art methods select candidate keyphrases based on the similarity between learned representations of the candidates and the document. They suffer performance degradation on long documents due to discrepancy between sequence lengths which causes mismatch between representations of keyphrase candidates and the document. In this work, we propose a novel unsupervised embedding-based KPE approach, Masked Document Embedding Rank (MDERank), to address this problem by leveraging a mask strategy and ranking candidates by the similarity between embeddings of the source document and the masked document. We further develop a KPE-oriented BERT (KPEBERT) model by proposing a novel self-supervised contrastive learning method, which is more compatible to MDERank than vanilla BERT. Comprehensive evaluations on six KPE benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed MDERank outperforms state-of-the-art unsupervised KPE approach by average 1.80 F1@15 improvement. MDERank further benefits from KPEBERT and overall achieves average 3.53 F1@15 improvement over SIFRank.
Contrastive learning has been demonstrated to be effective in enhancing pre-trained language models (PLMs) to derive superior universal sentence embeddings. However, existing contrastive methods still have two limitations. Firstly, previous works may acquire poor performance under domain shift settings, thus hindering the application of sentence representations in practice. We attribute this low performance to the over-parameterization of PLMs with millions of parameters. To alleviate it, we propose PromCSE (Prompt-based Contrastive Learning for Sentence Embeddings), which only trains small-scale Soft Prompt (i.e., a set of trainable vectors) while keeping PLMs fixed. Secondly, the commonly used NT-Xent loss function of contrastive learning does not fully exploit hard negatives in supervised learning settings. To this end, we propose to integrate an Energy-based Hinge loss to enhance the pairwise discriminative power, inspired by the connection between the NT-Xent loss and the Energy-based Learning paradigm. Empirical results on seven standard semantic textual similarity (STS) tasks and a domain-shifted STS task both show the effectiveness of our method compared with the current state-of-the-art sentence embedding models.
We present Mask-then-Fill, a flexible and effective data augmentation framework for event extraction. Our approach allows for more flexible manipulation of text and thus can generate more diverse data while keeping the original event structure unchanged as much as possible. Specifically, it first randomly masks out an adjunct sentence fragment and then infills a variable-length text span with a fine-tuned infilling model. The main advantage lies in that it can replace a fragment of arbitrary length in the text with another fragment of variable length, compared to the existing methods which can only replace a single word or a fixed-length fragment. On trigger and argument extraction tasks, the proposed framework is more effective than baseline methods and it demonstrates particularly strong results in the low-resource setting. Our further analysis shows that it achieves a good balance between diversity and distributional similarity.
Event extraction (EE) is crucial to downstream tasks such as new aggregation and event knowledge graph construction. Most existing EE datasets manually define fixed event types and design specific schema for each of them, failing to cover diverse events emerging from the online text. Moreover, news titles, an important source of event mentions, have not gained enough attention in current EE research. In this paper, we present Title2Event, a large-scale sentence-level dataset benchmarking Open Event Extraction without restricting event types. Title2Event contains more than 42,000 news titles in 34 topics collected from Chinese web pages. To the best of our knowledge, it is currently the largest manually annotated Chinese dataset for open event extraction. We further conduct experiments on Title2Event with different models and show that the characteristics of titles make it challenging for event extraction, addressing the significance of advanced study on this problem. The dataset and baseline codes are available at https://open-event-hub.github.io/title2event.
Large-scale pre-trained foundation models have been an emerging paradigm for building artificial intelligence (AI) systems, which can be quickly adapted to a wide range of downstream tasks. This paper presents mPLUG, a new vision-language foundation model for both cross-modal understanding and generation. Most existing pre-trained models suffer from inefficiency and linguistic signal overwhelmed by long visual sequences in cross-modal alignment. To address both problems, mPLUG introduces an effective and efficient vision-language architecture with novel cross-modal skip-connections.mPLUG is pre-trained end-to-end on large-scale image-text pairs with both discriminative and generative objectives. It achieves state-of-the-art results on a wide range of vision-language downstream tasks, including image captioning, image-text retrieval, visual grounding and visual question answering. mPLUG also demonstrates strong zero-shot transferability on vision-language and video-language tasks. The code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/alibaba/AliceMind
We study Comparative Preference Classification (CPC) which aims at predicting whether a preference comparison exists between two entities in a given sentence and, if so, which entity is preferred over the other. High-quality CPC models can significantly benefit applications such as comparative question answering and review-based recommendation. Among the existing approaches, non-deep learning methods suffer from inferior performances. The state-of-the-art graph neural network-based ED-GAT (Ma et al., 2020) only considers syntactic information while ignoring the critical semantic relations and the sentiments to the compared entities. We propose Sentiment Analysis Enhanced COmparative Network (SAECON) which improves CPC accuracy with a sentiment analyzer that learns sentiments to individual entities via domain adaptive knowledge transfer. Experiments on the CompSent-19 (Panchenko et al., 2019) dataset present a significant improvement on the F1 scores over the best existing CPC approaches.
Compliments and concerns in reviews are valuable for understanding users’ shopping interests and their opinions with respect to specific aspects of certain items. Existing review-based recommenders favor large and complex language encoders that can only learn latent and uninterpretable text representations. They lack explicit user-attention and item-property modeling, which however could provide valuable information beyond the ability to recommend items. Therefore, we propose a tightly coupled two-stage approach, including an Aspect-Sentiment Pair Extractor (ASPE) and an Attention-Property-aware Rating Estimator (APRE). Unsupervised ASPE mines Aspect-Sentiment pairs (AS-pairs) and APRE predicts ratings using AS-pairs as concrete aspect-level evidences. Extensive experiments on seven real-world Amazon Review Datasets demonstrate that ASPE can effectively extract AS-pairs which enable APRE to deliver superior accuracy over the leading baselines.
Current approaches to empathetic response generation focus on learning a model to predict an emotion label and generate a response based on this label and have achieved promising results. However, the emotion cause, an essential factor for empathetic responding, is ignored. The emotion cause is a stimulus for human emotions. Recognizing the emotion cause is helpful to better understand human emotions so as to generate more empathetic responses. To this end, we propose a novel framework that improves empathetic response generation by recognizing emotion cause in conversations. Specifically, an emotion reasoner is designed to predict a context emotion label and a sequence of emotion cause-oriented labels, which indicate whether the word is related to the emotion cause. Then we devise both hard and soft gated attention mechanisms to incorporate the emotion cause into response generation. Experiments show that incorporating emotion cause information improves the performance of the model on both emotion recognition and response generation.
The rapid growth in published clinical trials makes it difficult to maintain up-to-date systematic reviews, which require finding all relevant trials. This leads to policy and practice decisions based on out-of-date, incomplete, and biased subsets of available clinical evidence. Extracting and then normalising Population, Intervention, Comparator, and Outcome (PICO) information from clinical trial articles may be an effective way to automatically assign trials to systematic reviews and avoid searching and screening—the two most time-consuming systematic review processes. We propose and test a novel approach to PICO span detection. The major difference between our proposed method and previous approaches comes from detecting spans without needing annotated span data and using only crowdsourced sentence-level annotations. Experiments on two datasets show that PICO span detection results achieve much higher results for recall when compared to fully supervised methods with PICO sentence detection at least as good as human annotations. By removing the reliance on expert annotations for span detection, this work could be used in a human-machine pipeline for turning low-quality, crowdsourced, and sentence-level PICO annotations into structured information that can be used to quickly assign trials to relevant systematic reviews.
Deep learning models exhibit a preference for statistical fitting over logical reasoning. Spurious correlations might be memorized when there exists statistical bias in training data, which severely limits the model performance especially in small data scenarios. In this work, we introduce Counterfactual Adversarial Training framework (CAT) to tackle the problem from a causality perspective. Particularly, for a specific sample, CAT first generates a counterfactual representation through latent space interpolation in an adversarial manner, and then performs Counterfactual Risk Minimization (CRM) on each original-counterfactual pair to adjust sample-wise loss weight dynamically, which encourages the model to explore the true causal effect. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CAT achieves substantial performance improvement over SOTA across different downstream tasks, including sentence classification, natural language inference and question answering.
Reply suggestion models help users process emails and chats faster. Previous work only studies English reply suggestion. Instead, we present MRS, a multilingual reply suggestion dataset with ten languages. MRS can be used to compare two families of models: 1) retrieval models that select the reply from a fixed set and 2) generation models that produce the reply from scratch. Therefore, MRS complements existing cross-lingual generalization benchmarks that focus on classification and sequence labeling tasks. We build a generation model and a retrieval model as baselines for MRS. The two models have different strengths in the monolingual setting, and they require different strategies to generalize across languages. MRS is publicly available at https://github.com/zhangmozhi/mrs.
Existing work in multilingual pretraining has demonstrated the potential of cross-lingual transferability by training a unified Transformer encoder for multiple languages. However, much of this work only relies on the shared vocabulary and bilingual contexts to encourage the correlation across languages, which is loose and implicit for aligning the contextual representations between languages. In this paper, we plug a cross-attention module into the Transformer encoder to explicitly build the interdependence between languages. It can effectively avoid the degeneration of predicting masked words only conditioned on the context in its own language. More importantly, when fine-tuning on downstream tasks, the cross-attention module can be plugged in or out on-demand, thus naturally benefiting a wider range of cross-lingual tasks, from language understanding to generation. As a result, the proposed cross-lingual model delivers new state-of-the-art results on various cross-lingual understanding tasks of the XTREME benchmark, covering text classification, sequence labeling, question answering, and sentence retrieval. For cross-lingual generation tasks, it also outperforms all existing cross-lingual models and state-of-the-art Transformer variants on WMT14 English-to-German and English-to-French translation datasets, with gains of up to 1 2 BLEU.
Large pre-trained language models achieve state-of-the-art results when fine-tuned on downstream NLP tasks. However, they almost exclusively focus on text-only representation, while neglecting cell-level layout information that is important for form image understanding. In this paper, we propose a new pre-training approach, StructuralLM, to jointly leverage cell and layout information from scanned documents. Specifically, we pre-train StructuralLM with two new designs to make the most of the interactions of cell and layout information: 1) each cell as a semantic unit; 2) classification of cell positions. The pre-trained StructuralLM achieves new state-of-the-art results in different types of downstream tasks, including form understanding (from 78.95 to 85.14), document visual question answering (from 72.59 to 83.94) and document image classification (from 94.43 to 96.08).
Recently, question answering (QA) based on machine reading comprehension has become popular. This work focuses on generative QA which aims to generate an abstractive answer to a given question instead of extracting an answer span from a provided passage. Generative QA often suffers from two critical problems: (1) summarizing content irrelevant to a given question, (2) drifting away from a correct answer during generation. In this paper, we address these problems by a novel Rationale-Enriched Answer Generator (REAG), which incorporates an extractive mechanism into a generative model. Specifically, we add an extraction task on the encoder to obtain the rationale for an answer, which is the most relevant piece of text in an input document to a given question. Based on the extracted rationale and original input, the decoder is expected to generate an answer with high confidence. We jointly train REAG on the MS MARCO QA+NLG task and the experimental results show that REAG improves the quality and semantic accuracy of answers over baseline models.
Although pre-trained big models (e.g., BERT, ERNIE, XLNet, GPT3 etc.) have delivered top performance in Seq2seq modeling, their deployments in real-world applications are often hindered by the excessive computations and memory demand involved. For many applications, including named entity recognition (NER), matching the state-of-the-art result under budget has attracted considerable attention. Drawing power from the recent advance in knowledge distillation (KD), this work presents a novel distillation scheme to efficiently transfer the knowledge learned from big models to their more affordable counterpart. Our solution highlights the construction of surrogate labels through the k-best Viterbi algorithm to distill knowledge from the teacher model. To maximally assimilate knowledge into the student model, we propose a multi-grained distillation scheme, which integrates cross entropy involved in conditional random field (CRF) and fuzzy learning.To validate the effectiveness of our proposal, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation on five NER benchmarks, reporting cross-the-board performance gains relative to competing prior-arts. We further discuss ablation results to dissect our gains.
We consider the problem of scaling automated suggested replies for a commercial email application to multiple languages. Faced with increased compute requirements and low language resources for language expansion, we build a single universal model for improving the quality and reducing run-time costs of our production system. However, restricted data movement across regional centers prevents joint training across languages. To this end, we propose a multi-lingual multi-task continual learning framework, with auxiliary tasks and language adapters to train universal language representation across regions. The experimental results show positive cross-lingual transfer across languages while reducing catastrophic forgetting across regions. Our online results on real user traffic show significant CTR and Char-saved gain as well as 65% training cost reduction compared with per-language models. As a consequence, we have scaled the feature in multiple languages including low-resource markets.
Generating responses following a desired style has great potentials to extend applications of open-domain dialogue systems, yet is refrained by lacking of parallel data for training. In this work, we explore the challenging task with pre-trained language models that have brought breakthrough to various natural language tasks. To this end, we introduce a KL loss and a style classifier to the fine-tuning step in order to steer response generation towards the target style in both a word-level and a sentence-level. Comprehensive empirical studies with two public datasets indicate that our model can significantly outperform state-of-the-art methods in terms of both style consistency and contextual coherence.
The computing cost of transformer self-attention often necessitates breaking long documents to fit in pretrained models in document ranking tasks. In this paper, we design Query-Directed Sparse attention that induces IR-axiomatic structures in transformer self-attention. Our model, QDS-Transformer, enforces the principle properties desired in ranking: local contextualization, hierarchical representation, and query-oriented proximity matching, while it also enjoys efficiency from sparsity. Experiments on four fully supervised and few-shot TREC document ranking benchmarks demonstrate the consistent and robust advantage of QDS-Transformer over previous approaches, as they either retrofit long documents into BERT or use sparse attention without emphasizing IR principles. We further quantify the computing complexity and demonstrates that our sparse attention with TVM implementation is twice more efficient that the fully-connected self-attention. All source codes, trained model, and predictions of this work are available at https://github.com/hallogameboy/QDS-Transformer.
Pairwise data automatically constructed from weakly supervised signals has been widely used for training deep learning models. Pairwise datasets such as parallel texts can have uneven quality levels overall, but usually contain data subsets that are more useful as learning examples. We present two methods to refine data that are aimed to obtain that kind of subsets in a self-supervised way. Our methods are based on iteratively training dual-encoder models to compute similarity scores. We evaluate our methods on de-noising parallel texts and training neural machine translation models. We find that: (i) The self-supervised refinement achieves most machine translation gains in the first iteration, but following iterations further improve its intrinsic evaluation. (ii) Machine translations can improve the de-noising performance when combined with selection steps. (iii) Our methods are able to reach the performance of a supervised method. Being entirely self-supervised, our methods are well-suited to handle pairwise data without the need of prior knowledge or human annotations.
Humor plays an important role in human languages and it is essential to model humor when building intelligence systems. Among different forms of humor, puns perform wordplay for humorous effects by employing words with double entendre and high phonetic similarity. However, identifying and modeling puns are challenging as puns usually involved implicit semantic or phonological tricks. In this paper, we propose Pronunciation-attentive Contextualized Pun Recognition (PCPR) to perceive human humor, detect if a sentence contains puns and locate them in the sentence. PCPR derives contextualized representation for each word in a sentence by capturing the association between the surrounding context and its corresponding phonetic symbols. Extensive experiments are conducted on two benchmark datasets. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in pun detection and location tasks. In-depth analyses verify the effectiveness and robustness of PCPR.
Most data selection research in machine translation focuses on improving a single domain. We perform data selection for multiple domains at once. This is achieved by carefully introducing instance-level domain-relevance features and automatically constructing a training curriculum to gradually concentrate on multi-domain relevant and noise-reduced data batches. Both the choice of features and the use of curriculum are crucial for balancing and improving all domains, including out-of-domain. In large-scale experiments, the multi-domain curriculum simultaneously reaches or outperforms the individual performance and brings solid gains over no-curriculum training.
We propose to solve the natural language inference problem without any supervision from the inference labels via task-agnostic multimodal pretraining. Although recent studies of multimodal self-supervised learning also represent the linguistic and visual context, their encoders for different modalities are coupled. Thus they cannot incorporate visual information when encoding plain text alone. In this paper, we propose Multimodal Aligned Contrastive Decoupled learning (MACD) network. MACD forces the decoupled text encoder to represent the visual information via contrastive learning. Therefore, it embeds visual knowledge even for plain text inference. We conducted comprehensive experiments over plain text inference datasets (i.e. SNLI and STS-B). The unsupervised MACD even outperforms the fully-supervised BiLSTM and BiLSTM+ELMO on STS-B.
Self-supervised pre-training, such as BERT, MASS and BART, has emerged as a powerful technique for natural language understanding and generation. Existing pre-training techniques employ autoencoding and/or autoregressive objectives to train Transformer-based models by recovering original word tokens from corrupted text with some masked tokens. The training goals of existing techniques are often inconsistent with the goals of many language generation tasks, such as generative question answering and conversational response generation, for producing new text given context. This work presents PALM with a novel scheme that jointly pre-trains an autoencoding and autoregressive language model on a large unlabeled corpus, specifically designed for generating new text conditioned on context. The new scheme alleviates the mismatch introduced by the existing denoising scheme between pre-training and fine-tuning where generation is more than reconstructing original text. An extensive set of experiments show that PALM achieves new state-of-the-art results on a variety of language generation benchmarks covering generative question answering (Rank 1 on the official MARCO leaderboard), abstractive summarization on CNN/DailyMail as well as Gigaword, question generation on SQuAD, and conversational response generation on Cornell Movie Dialogues.
We propose a novel attention network for document annotation with user-generated tags. The network is designed according to the human reading and annotation behaviour. Usually, users try to digest the title and obtain a rough idea about the topic first, and then read the content of the document. Present research shows that the title metadata could largely affect the social annotation. To better utilise this information, we design a framework that separates the title from the content of a document and apply a title-guided attention mechanism over each sentence in the content. We also propose two semantic-based loss regularisers that enforce the output of the network to conform to label semantics, i.e. similarity and subsumption. We analyse each part of the proposed system with two real-world open datasets on publication and question annotation. The integrated approach, Joint Multi-label Attention Network (JMAN), significantly outperformed the Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (Bi-GRU) by around 13%-26% and the Hierarchical Attention Network (HAN) by around 4%-12% on both datasets, with around 10%-30% reduction of training time.
Noise and domain are important aspects of data quality for neural machine translation. Existing research focus separately on domain-data selection, clean-data selection, or their static combination, leaving the dynamic interaction across them not explicitly examined. This paper introduces a “co-curricular learning” method to compose dynamic domain-data selection with dynamic clean-data selection, for transfer learning across both capabilities. We apply an EM-style optimization procedure to further refine the “co-curriculum”. Experiment results and analysis with two domains demonstrate the effectiveness of the method and the properties of data scheduled by the co-curriculum.
Accompanied by modern industrial developments, air pollution has already become a major concern for human health. Hence, air quality measures, such as the concentration of PM2.5, have attracted increasing attention. Even some studies apply historical measurements into air quality forecast, the changes of air quality conditions are still hard to monitor. In this paper, we propose to exploit social media and natural language processing techniques to enhance air quality prediction. Social media users are treated as social sensors with their findings and locations. After filtering noisy tweets using word selection and topic modeling, a deep learning model based on convolutional neural networks and over-tweet-pooling is proposed to enhance air quality prediction. We conduct experiments on 7-month real-world Twitter datasets in the five most heavily polluted states in the USA. The results show that our approach significantly improves air quality prediction over the baseline that does not use social media by 6.9% to 17.7% in macro-F1 scores.
Modern NLP applications have enjoyed a great boost utilizing neural networks models. Such deep neural models, however, are not applicable to most human languages due to the lack of annotated training data for various NLP tasks. Cross-lingual transfer learning (CLTL) is a viable method for building NLP models for a low-resource target language by leveraging labeled data from other (source) languages. In this work, we focus on the multilingual transfer setting where training data in multiple source languages is leveraged to further boost target language performance. Unlike most existing methods that rely only on language-invariant features for CLTL, our approach coherently utilizes both language-invariant and language-specific features at instance level. Our model leverages adversarial networks to learn language-invariant features, and mixture-of-experts models to dynamically exploit the similarity between the target language and each individual source language. This enables our model to learn effectively what to share between various languages in the multilingual setup. Moreover, when coupled with unsupervised multilingual embeddings, our model can operate in a zero-resource setting where neither target language training data nor cross-lingual resources are available. Our model achieves significant performance gains over prior art, as shown in an extensive set of experiments over multiple text classification and sequence tagging tasks including a large-scale industry dataset.
There are many different ways in which external information might be used in a NLP task. This paper investigates how external syntactic information can be used most effectively in the Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) task. We evaluate three different ways of encoding syntactic parses and three different ways of injecting them into a state-of-the-art neural ELMo-based SRL sequence labelling model. We show that using a constituency representation as input features improves performance the most, achieving a new state-of-the-art for non-ensemble SRL models on the in-domain CoNLL’05 and CoNLL’12 benchmarks.
Commonsense and background knowledge is required for a QA model to answer many nontrivial questions. Different from existing work on knowledge-aware QA, we focus on a more challenging task of leveraging external knowledge to generate answers in natural language for a given question with context. In this paper, we propose a new neural model, Knowledge-Enriched Answer Generator (KEAG), which is able to compose a natural answer by exploiting and aggregating evidence from all four information sources available: question, passage, vocabulary and knowledge. During the process of answer generation, KEAG adaptively determines when to utilize symbolic knowledge and which fact from the knowledge is useful. This allows the model to exploit external knowledge that is not explicitly stated in the given text, but that is relevant for generating an answer. The empirical study on public benchmark of answer generation demonstrates that KEAG improves answer quality over models without knowledge and existing knowledge-aware models, confirming its effectiveness in leveraging knowledge.
Adversarial attacks against machine learning models have threatened various real-world applications such as spam filtering and sentiment analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, learning to discriminate perturbations (DISP), to identify and adjust malicious perturbations, thereby blocking adversarial attacks for text classification models. To identify adversarial attacks, a perturbation discriminator validates how likely a token in the text is perturbed and provides a set of potential perturbations. For each potential perturbation, an embedding estimator learns to restore the embedding of the original word based on the context and a replacement token is chosen based on approximate kNN search. DISP can block adversarial attacks for any NLP model without modifying the model structure or training procedure. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that DISP significantly outperforms baseline methods in blocking adversarial attacks for text classification. In addition, in-depth analysis shows the robustness of DISP across different situations.
Word embedding models have become a fundamental component in a wide range of Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications. However, embeddings trained on human-generated corpora have been demonstrated to inherit strong gender stereotypes that reflect social constructs. To address this concern, in this paper, we propose a novel training procedure for learning gender-neutral word embeddings. Our approach aims to preserve gender information in certain dimensions of word vectors while compelling other dimensions to be free of gender influence. Based on the proposed method, we generate a Gender-Neutral variant of GloVe (GN-GloVe). Quantitative and qualitative experiments demonstrate that GN-GloVe successfully isolates gender information without sacrificing the functionality of the embedding model.
An enormous amount of conversation occurs online every day, such as on chat platforms where multiple conversations may take place concurrently. Interleaved conversations lead to difficulties in not only following discussions but also retrieving relevant information from simultaneous messages. Conversation disentanglement aims to separate intermingled messages into detached conversations. In this paper, we propose to leverage representation learning for conversation disentanglement. A Siamese hierarchical convolutional neural network (SHCNN), which integrates local and more global representations of a message, is first presented to estimate the conversation-level similarity between closely posted messages. With the estimated similarity scores, our algorithm for conversation identification by similarity ranking (CISIR) then derives conversations based on high-confidence message pairs and pairwise redundancy. Experiments were conducted with four publicly available datasets of conversations from Reddit and IRC channels. The experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms comparative baselines in both pairwise similarity estimation and conversation disentanglement.
Measuring domain relevance of data and identifying or selecting well-fit domain data for machine translation (MT) is a well-studied topic, but denoising is not yet. Denoising is concerned with a different type of data quality and tries to reduce the negative impact of data noise on MT training, in particular, neural MT (NMT) training. This paper generalizes methods for measuring and selecting data for domain MT and applies them to denoising NMT training. The proposed approach uses trusted data and a denoising curriculum realized by online data selection. Intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations of the approach show its significant effectiveness for NMT to train on data with severe noise.
A knowledge base is a large repository of facts that are mainly represented as RDF triples, each of which consists of a subject, a predicate (relationship), and an object. The RDF triple representation offers a simple interface for applications to access the facts. However, this representation is not in a natural language form, which is difficult for humans to understand. We address this problem by proposing a system to translate a set of RDF triples into natural sentences based on an encoder-decoder framework. To preserve as much information from RDF triples as possible, we propose a novel graph-based triple encoder. The proposed encoder encodes not only the elements of the triples but also the relationships both within a triple and between the triples. Experimental results show that the proposed encoder achieves a consistent improvement over the baseline models by up to 17.6%, 6.0%, and 16.4% in three common metrics BLEU, METEOR, and TER, respectively.
This paper describes a novel hierarchical attention network for reading comprehension style question answering, which aims to answer questions for a given narrative paragraph. In the proposed method, attention and fusion are conducted horizontally and vertically across layers at different levels of granularity between question and paragraph. Specifically, it first encode the question and paragraph with fine-grained language embeddings, to better capture the respective representations at semantic level. Then it proposes a multi-granularity fusion approach to fully fuse information from both global and attended representations. Finally, it introduces a hierarchical attention network to focuses on the answer span progressively with multi-level soft-alignment. Extensive experiments on the large-scale SQuAD, TriviaQA dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. At the time of writing the paper, our model achieves state-of-the-art on the both SQuAD and TriviaQA Wiki leaderboard as well as two adversarial SQuAD datasets.
Unsupervised methods gain more and more attention nowadays in information extraction area, which allows to design more open extraction systems. In the domain of unsupervised information extraction, clustering methods are of particular importance. However, evaluating the results of clustering remains difficult at a large scale, especially in the absence of reliable reference. On the basis of our experiments on unsupervised relation extraction, we first discuss in this article how to evaluate clustering quality without a reference by relying on internal measures. Then we propose a method, supported by a dedicated annotation tool, for building a set of reference clusters of relations from a corpus. Moreover, we apply it to our experimental framework and illustrate in this way how to build a significant reference for unsupervised relation extraction, more precisely made of 80 clusters gathering more than 4,000 relation instances, in a short time. Finally, we present how such reference is exploited for the evaluation of clustering with external measures and analyze the results of the application of these measures to the clusters of relations produced by our unsupervised relation extraction system.
We present a simple and effective infrastructure for domain adaptation for statistical machine translation (MT). To build MT systems for different domains, it trains, tunes and deploys a single translation system that is capable of producing adapted domain translations and preserving the original generic accuracy at the same time. The approach unifies automatic domain detection and domain model parameterization into one system. Experiment results on 20 language pairs demonstrate its viability.
Le domaine de l’extraction d’information s’est récemment développé en limitant les contraintes sur la définition des informations à extraire, ouvrant la voie à des applications de veille plus ouvertes. Dans ce contexte de l’extraction d’information non supervisée, nous nous intéressons à l’identification et la caractérisation de nouvelles relations entre des types d’entités fixés. Un des défis de cette tâche est de faire face à la masse importante de candidats pour ces relations lorsque l’on considère des corpus de grande taille. Nous présentons dans cet article une approche pour le filtrage des relations combinant méthode heuristique et méthode par apprentissage. Nous évaluons ce filtrage de manière intrinsèque et par son impact sur un regroupement sémantique des relations.
We introduced, for Translation Memory System, a statistical framework, which unifies the different phases in a Translation Memory System by letting them constrain each other, and enables Translation Memory System a statistical qualification. Compared to traditional Translation Memory Systems, our model operates at a fine grained sub-sentential level such that it improves the translation coverage. Compared with other approaches that exploit sub-sentential benefits, it unifies the processes of source string segmentation, best example selection, and translation generation by making them constrain each other via the statistical confidence of each step. We realized this framework into a prototype system. Compared with an existing product Translation Memory System, our system exhibits obviously better performance in the "assistant quality metric" and gains improvements in the range of 26.3% to 55.1% in the "translation efficiency metric".