A Temporal Knowledge Graph (TKG) is a sequence of KGs corresponding to different timestamps. TKG reasoning aims to predict potential facts in the future given the historical KG sequences. One key of this task is to mine and understand evolutional patterns of facts from these sequences. The evolutional patterns are complex in two aspects, length-diversity and time-variability. Existing models for TKG reasoning focus on modeling fact sequences of a fixed length, which cannot discover complex evolutional patterns that vary in length. Furthermore, these models are all trained offline, which cannot well adapt to the changes of evolutional patterns from then on. Thus, we propose a new model, called Complex Evolutional Network (CEN), which uses a length-aware Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to handle evolutional patterns of different lengths via an easy-to-difficult curriculum learning strategy. Besides, we propose to learn the model under the online setting so that it can adapt to the changes of evolutional patterns over time. Extensive experiments demonstrate that CEN obtains substantial performance improvement under both the traditional offline and the proposed online settings.
A Temporal Knowledge Graph (TKG) is a sequence of KGs with respective timestamps, which adopts quadruples in the form of (subject, relation, object, timestamp) to describe dynamic facts. TKG reasoning has facilitated many real-world applications via answering such queries as (query entity, query relation, ?, future timestamp) about future. This is actually a matching task between a query and candidate entities based on their historical structures, which reflect behavioral trends of the entities at different timestamps. In addition, recent KGs provide background knowledge of all the entities, which is also helpful for the matching. Thus, in this paper, we propose the Historical Structure Matching (HiSMatch) model. It applies two structure encoders to capture the semantic information contained in the historical structures of the query and candidate entities. Besides, it adopts another encoder to integrate the background knowledge into the model. TKG reasoning experiments on six benchmark datasets demonstrate the significant improvement of the proposed HiSMatch model, with up to 5.6% performance improvement in MRR, compared to the state-of-the-art baselines.
Recently, Biomedical Question Answering (BQA) has attracted growing attention due to its application value and technical challenges. Most existing works treat it as a semantic matching task that predicts answers by computing confidence among questions, options and evidence sentences, which is insufficient for scenarios that require complex reasoning based on a deep understanding of biomedical evidences. We propose a novel model termed Hierarchical Representation-based Dynamic Reasoning Network (HDRN) to tackle this problem. It first constructs the hierarchical representations for biomedical evidences to learn semantics within and among evidences. It then performs dynamic reasoning based on the hierarchical representations of evidences to solve complex biomedical problems. Against the existing state-of-the-art model, the proposed model significantly improves more than 4.5%, 3% and 1.3% on three mainstream BQA datasets, PubMedQA, MedQA-USMLE and NLPEC. The ablation study demonstrates the superiority of each improvement of our model. The code will be released after the paper is published.
Integrating knowledge into text is a promising way to enrich text representation, especially in the medical field. However, undifferentiated knowledge not only confuses the text representation but also imports unexpected noises. In this paper, to alleviate this problem, we propose leveraging capsule routing to associate knowledge with medical literature hierarchically (called HiCapsRKL). Firstly, HiCapsRKL extracts two empirically designed text fragments from medical literature and encodes them into fragment representations respectively. Secondly, the capsule routing algorithm is applied to two fragment representations. Through the capsule computing and dynamic routing, each representation is processed into a new representation (denoted as caps-representation), and we integrate the caps-representations as information gain to associate knowledge with medical literature hierarchically. Finally, HiCapsRKL are validated on relevance prediction and medical literature retrieval test sets. The experimental results and analyses show that HiCapsRKLcan more accurately associate knowledge with medical literature than mainstream methods. In summary, HiCapsRKL can efficiently help selecting the most relevant knowledge to the medical literature, which may be an alternative attempt to improve knowledge-based text representation. Source code is released on GitHub.
Modern models for event causality identification (ECI) are mainly based on supervised learning, which are prone to the data lacking problem. Unfortunately, the existing NLP-related augmentation methods cannot directly produce available data required for this task. To solve the data lacking problem, we introduce a new approach to augment training data for event causality identification, by iteratively generating new examples and classifying event causality in a dual learning framework. On the one hand, our approach is knowledge guided, which can leverage existing knowledge bases to generate well-formed new sentences. On the other hand, our approach employs a dual mechanism, which is a learnable augmentation framework, and can interactively adjust the generation process to generate task-related sentences. Experimental results on two benchmarks EventStoryLine and Causal-TimeBank show that 1) our method can augment suitable task-related training data for ECI; 2) our method outperforms previous methods on EventStoryLine and Causal-TimeBank (+2.5 and +2.1 points on F1 value respectively).
Identifying causal relations of events is an important task in natural language processing area. However, the task is very challenging, because event causality is usually expressed in diverse forms that often lack explicit causal clues. Existing methods cannot handle well the problem, especially in the condition of lacking training data. Nonetheless, humans can make a correct judgement based on their background knowledge, including descriptive knowledge and relational knowledge. Inspired by it, we propose a novel Latent Structure Induction Network (LSIN) to incorporate the external structural knowledge into this task. Specifically, to make use of the descriptive knowledge, we devise a Descriptive Graph Induction module to obtain and encode the graph-structured descriptive knowledge. To leverage the relational knowledge, we propose a Relational Graph Induction module which is able to automatically learn a reasoning structure for event causality reasoning. Experimental results on two widely used datasets indicate that our approach significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.
Event extraction, which aims to identify event triggers of pre-defined event types and their arguments of specific roles, is a challenging task in NLP. Most traditional approaches formulate this task as classification problems, with event types or argument roles taken as golden labels. Such approaches fail to model rich interactions among event types and arguments of different roles, and cannot generalize to new types or roles. This work proposes a new paradigm that formulates event extraction as multi-turn question answering. Our approach, MQAEE, casts the extraction task into a series of reading comprehension problems, by which it extracts triggers and arguments successively from a given sentence. A history answer embedding strategy is further adopted to model question answering history in the multi-turn process. By this new formulation, MQAEE makes full use of dependency among arguments and event types, and generalizes well to new types with new argument roles. Empirical results on ACE 2005 shows that MQAEE outperforms current state-of-the-art, pushing the final F1 of argument extraction to 53.4% (+2.0%). And it also has a good generalization ability, achieving competitive performance on 13 new event types even if trained only with a few samples of them.
To exploit the domain knowledge to guarantee the correctness of generated text has been a hot topic in recent years, especially for high professional domains such as medical. However, most of recent works only consider the information of unstructured text rather than structured information of the knowledge graph. In this paper, we focus on the medical topic-to-text generation task and adapt a knowledge-aware text generation model to the medical domain, named MedWriter, which not only introduces the specific knowledge from the external MKG but also is capable of learning graph-level representation. We conduct experiments on a medical literature dataset collected from medical journals, each of which has a set of topic words, an abstract of medical literature and a corresponding knowledge graph from CMeKG. Experimental results demonstrate incorporating knowledge graph into generation model can improve the quality of the generated text and has robust superiority over the competitor methods.
Machine reading comprehension (MRC) has achieved significant progress on the open domain in recent years, mainly due to large-scale pre-trained language models. However, it performs much worse in specific domains such as the medical field due to the lack of extensive training data and professional structural knowledge neglect. As an effort, we first collect a large scale medical multi-choice question dataset (more than 21k instances) for the National Licensed Pharmacist Examination in China. It is a challenging medical examination with a passing rate of less than 14.2% in 2018. Then we propose a novel reading comprehension model KMQA, which can fully exploit the structural medical knowledge (i.e., medical knowledge graph) and the reference medical plain text (i.e., text snippets retrieved from reference books). The experimental results indicate that the KMQA outperforms existing competitive models with a large margin and passes the exam with 61.8% accuracy rate on the test set.