Learning effective language representations from crowdsourced labels is crucial for many real-world machine learning tasks. A challenging aspect of this problem is that the quality of crowdsourced labels suffer high intra- and inter-observer variability. Since the high-capacity deep neural networks can easily memorize all disagreements among crowdsourced labels, directly applying existing supervised language representation learning algorithms may yield suboptimal solutions. In this paper, we propose TACMA
, a temporal-aware language representation learning heuristic for crowdsourced labels with multiple annotators. The proposed approach (1) explicitly models the intra-observer variability with attention mechanism; (2) computes and aggregates per-sample confidence scores from multiple workers to address the inter-observer disagreements. The proposed heuristic is extremely easy to implement in around 5 lines of code. The proposed heuristic is evaluated on four synthetic and four real-world data sets. The results show that our approach outperforms a wide range of state-of-the-art baselines in terms of prediction accuracy and AUC. To encourage the reproducible results, we make our code publicly available at https://github.com/CrowdsourcingMining/TACMA
Generating long and coherent text is an important but challenging task, particularly for open-ended language generation tasks such as story generation. Despite the success in modeling intra-sentence coherence, existing generation models (e.g., BART) still struggle to maintain a coherent event sequence throughout the generated text. We conjecture that this is because of the difficulty for the decoder to capture the high-level semantics and discourse structures in the context beyond token-level co-occurrence. In this paper, we propose a long text generation model, which can represent the prefix sentences at sentence level and discourse level in the decoding process. To this end, we propose two pretraining objectives to learn the representations by predicting inter-sentence semantic similarity and distinguishing between normal and shuffled sentence orders. Extensive experiments show that our model can generate more coherent texts than state-of-the-art baselines.
Automatic metrics are essential for developing natural language generation (NLG) models, particularly for open-ended language generation tasks such as story generation. However, existing automatic metrics are observed to correlate poorly with human evaluation. The lack of standardized benchmark datasets makes it difficult to fully evaluate the capabilities of a metric and fairly compare different metrics. Therefore, we propose OpenMEVA, a benchmark for evaluating open-ended story generation metrics. OpenMEVA provides a comprehensive test suite to assess the capabilities of metrics, including (a) the correlation with human judgments, (b) the generalization to different model outputs and datasets, (c) the ability to judge story coherence, and (d) the robustness to perturbations. To this end, OpenMEVA includes both manually annotated stories and auto-constructed test examples. We evaluate existing metrics on OpenMEVA and observe that they have poor correlation with human judgments, fail to recognize discourse-level incoherence, and lack inferential knowledge (e.g., causal order between events), the generalization ability and robustness. Our study presents insights for developing NLG models and metrics in further research.
Existing audio-language task-specific predictive approaches focus on building complicated late-fusion mechanisms. However, these models are facing challenges of overfitting with limited labels and low model generalization abilities. In this paper, we present a Cross-modal Transformer for Audio-and-Language, i.e., CTAL, which aims to learn the intra-modality and inter-modality connections between audio and language through two proxy tasks on a large amount of audio-and-language pairs: masked language modeling and masked cross-modal acoustic modeling. After fine-tuning our pre-trained model on multiple downstream audio-and-language tasks, we observe significant improvements across various tasks, such as, emotion classification, sentiment analysis, and speaker verification. On this basis, we further propose a specially-designed fusion mechanism that can be used in fine-tuning phase, which allows our pre-trained model to achieve better performance. Lastly, we demonstrate detailed ablation studies to prove that both our novel cross-modality fusion component and audio-language pre-training methods significantly contribute to the promising results. The code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/tal-ai/CTAL_EMNLP2021.
There is an increasing interest in the use of mathematical word problem (MWP) generation in educational assessment. Different from standard natural question generation, MWP generation needs to maintain the underlying mathematical operations between quantities and variables, while at the same time ensuring the relevance between the output and the given topic. To address above problem, we develop an end-to-end neural model to generate diverse MWPs in real-world scenarios from commonsense knowledge graph and equations. The proposed model (1) learns both representations from edge-enhanced Levi graphs of symbolic equations and commonsense knowledge; (2) automatically fuses equation and commonsense knowledge information via a self-planning module when generating the MWPs. Experiments on an educational gold-standard set and a large-scale generated MWP set show that our approach is superior on the MWP generation task, and it outperforms the SOTA models in terms of both automatic evaluation metrics, i.e., BLEU-4, ROUGE-L, Self-BLEU, and human evaluation metrics, i.e., equation relevance, topic relevance, and language coherence. To encourage reproducible results, we make our code and MWP dataset public available at https://github.com/tal-ai/MaKE_EMNLP2021