Wenhao Wu


2023

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WeCheck: Strong Factual Consistency Checker via Weakly Supervised Learning
Wenhao Wu | Wei Li | Xinyan Xiao | Jiachen Liu | Sujian Li | Yajuan Lyu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A crucial issue of current text generation models is that they often uncontrollably generate text that is factually inconsistent with inputs. Due to lack of annotated data, existing factual consistency metrics usually train evaluation models on synthetic texts or directly transfer from other related tasks, such as question answering (QA) and natural language inference (NLI).Bias in synthetic text or upstream tasks makes them perform poorly on text actually generated by language models, especially for general evaluation for various tasks. To alleviate this problem, we propose a weakly supervised framework named WeCheck that is directly trained on actual generated samples from language models with weakly annotated labels.WeCheck first utilizes a generative model to infer the factual labels of generated samples by aggregating weak labels from multiple resources.Next, we train a simple noise-aware classification model as the target metric using the inferred weakly supervised information.Comprehensive experiments on various tasks demonstrate the strong performance of WeCheck, achieving an average absolute improvement of 3.3% on the TRUE benchmark over 11B state-of-the-art methods using only 435M parameters.Furthermore, it is up to 30 times faster than previous evaluation methods, greatly improving the accuracy and efficiency of factual consistency evaluation.

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Debiasing Generative Named Entity Recognition by Calibrating Sequence Likelihood
Yu Xia | Yongwei Zhao | Wenhao Wu | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Recognizing flat, overlapped and discontinuous entities uniformly has been paid increasing attention. Among these works, Seq2Seq formulation prevails for its flexibility and effectiveness. It arranges the output entities into a specific target sequence. However, it introduces bias by assigning all the probability mass to the observed sequence. To alleviate the bias, previous works either augment the data with possible sequences or resort to other formulations. In this paper, we stick to the Seq2Seq formulation and propose a reranking-based approach. It redistributes the likelihood among candidate sequences depending on their performance via a contrastive loss. Extensive experiments show that our simple yet effective method consistently boosts the baseline, and yields competitive or better results compared with the state-of-the-art methods on 8 widely-used datasets for Named Entity Recognition.

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Exploring In-Context Learning for Knowledge Grounded Dialog Generation
Qinyu Chen | Wenhao Wu | Sujian Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large neural-based dialog generation models have been applied in many real-life scenarios, yet they are prone to hallucination and tend to produce factually inaccurate outputs which raise great concerns. To alleviate this problem, we propose a plug-and-play retrieval-based framework IKA, which leverages in-context learning and retrieval techniques to enhance LLMs on knowledge grounded dialog generation. We design thorough experiments on a large-scale knowledge graph with 1M+ facts to investigate the effectiveness and generalization of our framework. Experiments show that our method surpasses previous training-based SOTA by a large margin, specifically 46.67% in BLEU4, 26.01% in ROUGE-L, 122.90% in BARTScore and 30.50% in Entity Coverage F1. Further analysis show promising abilities of LLMs to perform knowledge-intensive tasks, which is previously considered weak and understudied.

2022

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Learn and Review: Enhancing Continual Named Entity Recognition via Reviewing Synthetic Samples
Yu Xia | Quan Wang | Yajuan Lyu | Yong Zhu | Wenhao Wu | Sujian Li | Dai Dai
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Traditional methods for named entity recognition (NER) classify mentions into a fixed set of pre-defined entity types. However, in many real-world scenarios, new entity types are incrementally involved. To investigate this problem, continual learning is introduced for NER. However, the existing method depends on the relevance between tasks and is prone to inter-type confusion. In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage framework Learn-and-Review (L&R) for continual NER under the type-incremental setting to alleviate the above issues. Specifically, for the learning stage, we distill the old knowledge from teacher to a student on the current dataset. For the reviewing stage, we first generate synthetic samples of old types to augment the dataset. Then, we further distill new knowledge from the above student and old knowledge from the teacher to get an enhanced student on the augmented dataset. This stage has the following advantages: (1) The synthetic samples mitigate the gap between the old and new task and thus enhance the further distillation; (2) Different types of entities are jointly seen during training which alleviates the inter-type confusion. Experimental results show that L&R outperforms the state-of-the-art method on CoNLL-03 and OntoNotes-5.0.

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FRSUM: Towards Faithful Abstractive Summarization via Enhancing Factual Robustness
Wenhao Wu | Wei Li | Jiachen Liu | Xinyan Xiao | Ziqiang Cao | Sujian Li | Hua Wu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Despite being able to generate fluent and grammatical text, current Seq2Seq summarization models still suffering from the unfaithful generation problem. In this paper, we study the faithfulness of existing systems from a new perspective of factual robustness which is the ability to correctly generate factual information over adversarial unfaithful information. We first measure a model’sfactual robustness by its success rate to defend against adversarial attacks when generating factual information. The factual robustness analysis on a wide range of current systems shows its good consistency with human judgments on faithfulness. Inspired by these findings, we propose to improve the faithfulness of a model by enhancing its factual robustness. Specifically, we propose a novel training strategy, namely FRSUM, which teaches the model to defend against both explicit adversarial samples and implicit factual adversarial perturbations. Extensive automatic and human evaluation results show that FRSUM consistently improves the faithfulness of various Seq2Seq models, such as T5, BART.

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Precisely the Point: Adversarial Augmentations for Faithful and Informative Text Generation
Wenhao Wu | Wei Li | Jiachen Liu | Xinyan Xiao | Sujian Li | Yajuan Lyu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Though model robustness has been extensively studied in language understanding, the robustness of Seq2Seq generation remains understudied. In this paper, we conduct the first quantitative analysis on the robustness of pre-trained Seq2Seq models. We find that even current SOTA pre-trained Seq2Seq model (BART) is still vulnerable, which leads to significant degeneration in faithfulness and informativeness for text generation tasks. This motivated us to further propose a novel adversarial augmentation framework, namely AdvSeq, for generally improving faithfulness and informativeness of Seq2Seq models via enhancing their robustness. AdvSeq automatically constructs two types of adversarial augmentations during training, including implicit adversarial samples by perturbing word representations and explicit adversarial samples by word swapping, both of which effectively improve Seq2Seq robustness. Extensive experiments on three popular text generation tasks demonstrate that AdvSeq significantly improves both the faithfulness and informativeness of Seq2Seq generation under both automatic and human evaluation settings.

2021

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BASS: Boosting Abstractive Summarization with Unified Semantic Graph
Wenhao Wu | Wei Li | Xinyan Xiao | Jiachen Liu | Ziqiang Cao | Sujian Li | Hua Wu | Haifeng Wang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Abstractive summarization for long-document or multi-document remains challenging for the Seq2Seq architecture, as Seq2Seq is not good at analyzing long-distance relations in text. In this paper, we present BASS, a novel framework for Boosting Abstractive Summarization based on a unified Semantic graph, which aggregates co-referent phrases distributing across a long range of context and conveys rich relations between phrases. Further, a graph-based encoder-decoder model is proposed to improve both the document representation and summary generation process by leveraging the graph structure. Specifically, several graph augmentation methods are designed to encode both the explicit and implicit relations in the text while the graph-propagation attention mechanism is developed in the decoder to select salient content into the summary. Empirical results show that the proposed architecture brings substantial improvements for both long-document and multi-document summarization tasks.

2020

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Composing Elementary Discourse Units in Abstractive Summarization
Zhenwen Li | Wenhao Wu | Sujian Li
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we argue that elementary discourse unit (EDU) is a more appropriate textual unit of content selection than the sentence unit in abstractive summarization. To well handle the problem of composing EDUs into an informative and fluent summary, we propose a novel summarization method that first designs an EDU selection model to extract and group informative EDUs and then an EDU fusion model to fuse the EDUs in each group into one sentence. We also design the reinforcement learning mechanism to use EDU fusion results to reward the EDU selection action, boosting the final summarization performance. Experiments on CNN/Daily Mail have demonstrated the effectiveness of our model.