Semantic Framework based Query Generation for Temporal Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs
Wentao Ding | Hao Chen | Huayu Li | Yuzhong Qu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
Answering factual questions with temporal intent over knowledge graphs (temporal KGQA) attracts rising attention in recent years.In the generation of temporal queries, existing KGQA methods ignore the fact that some intrinsic connections between events can make them temporally related, which may limit their capability.We systematically analyze the possible interpretation of temporal constraints and conclude the interpretation structures as the Semantic Framework of Temporal Constraints, SF-TCons.Based on the semantic framework, we propose a temporal question answering method, SF-TQA, which generates query graphs by exploring the relevant facts of mentioned entities, where the exploring process is restricted by SF-TCons. Our evaluations show that SF-TQA significantly outperforms existing methods on two benchmarks over different knowledge graphs.
Automatic rule generation for time expression normalization
Wentao Ding | Jianhao Chen | Jinmao Li | Yuzhong Qu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021
The understanding of time expressions includes two sub-tasks: recognition and normalization. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the recognition of time expressions while research on normalization has lagged behind. Existing SOTA normalization methods highly rely on rules or grammars designed by experts, which limits their performance on emerging corpora, such as social media texts. In this paper, we model time expression normalization as a sequence of operations to construct the normalized temporal value, and we present a novel method called ARTime, which can automatically generate normalization rules from training data without expert interventions. Specifically, ARTime automatically captures possible operation sequences from annotated data and generates normalization rules on time expressions with common surface forms. The experimental results show that ARTime can significantly surpass SOTA methods on the Tweets benchmark, and achieves competitive results with existing expert-engineered rule methods on the TempEval-3 benchmark.