Xi Chen


2023

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Class Lifelong Learning for Intent Detection via Structure Consolidation Networks
Qingbin Liu | Yanchao Hao | Xiaolong Liu | Bo Li | Dianbo Sui | Shizhu He | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao | Xi Chen | Ningyu Zhang | Jiaoyan Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Intent detection, which estimates diverse intents behind user utterances, is an essential component of task-oriented dialogue systems. Previous intent detection models are usually trained offline, which can only handle predefined intent classes. In the real world, new intents may keep challenging deployed models. For example, with the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic, users may pose various issues related to the pandemic to conversational systems, which brings many new intents. A general intent detection model should be intelligent enough to continually learn new data and recognize new arriving intent classes. Therefore, this work explores Class Lifelong Learning for Intent Detection (CLL-ID), where the model continually learns new intent classes from new data while avoiding catastrophic performance degradation on old data. To this end, we propose a novel lifelong learning method, called Structure Consolidation Networks (SCN), which consists of structure-based retrospection and contrastive knowledge distillation to handle the problems of expression diversity and class imbalance in the CLL-ID task. In addition to formulating the new task, we construct 3 benchmarks based on 8 intent detection datasets. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of SCN, which significantly outperforms previous lifelong learning methods on the three benchmarks.

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A Table-to-Text Framework with Heterogeneous Multidominance Attention and Self-Evaluated Multi-Pass Deliberation
Xi Chen | Xinjiang Lu | Haoran Xin | Wenjun Peng | Haoyang Duan | Feihu Jiang | Jingbo Zhou | Hui Xiong
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Though big progress in table-to-text works, effectively leveraging table structure signals, e.g., hierarchical structure, remains challenging. Besides, deliberating generated descriptions proves to be effective for table-to-text. However, determining the appropriate outcome when encountering multi-pass candidates is another challenge. To this end, we propose a novel table-to-text approach on top of Self-evaluated multi-pass Generation and Heterogenous Multidominance Attention, namely SG-HMA. Specifically, we formulate the table structure into a multidominance (MD) structure and devise a heterogenous multidominance attention (HMA) to comprehensively explore the complex interactions encoded in the hierarchical structure, which can further deliver rich signals for text generation with the help of pre-trained language models (PLMs). Afterward, a contrastive loss is introduced to align the generation objective with evaluation metrics, so the more faithful generated descriptions can be guaranteed. We conduct extensive experiments on three public datasets, demonstrating that SG-HMA outperforms several SOTA methods quantitatively and qualitatively.

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MaXM: Towards Multilingual Visual Question Answering
Soravit Changpinyo | Linting Xue | Michal Yarom | Ashish Thapliyal | Idan Szpektor | Julien Amelot | Xi Chen | Radu Soricut
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Visual Question Answering (VQA) has been primarily studied through the lens of the English language. Yet, tackling VQA in other languages in the same manner would require a considerable amount of resources. In this paper, we propose scalable solutions to multilingual visual question answering (mVQA), on both data and modeling fronts. We first propose a translation-based framework to mVQA data generation that requires much less human annotation efforts than the conventional approach of directly collection questions and answers. Then, we apply our framework to the multilingual captions in the Crossmodal-3600 dataset and develop an efficient annotation protocol to create MaXM, a test-only VQA benchmark in 7 diverse languages. Finally, we develop a simple, lightweight, and effective approach as well as benchmark state-of-the-art English and multilingual VQA models. We hope that our benchmark encourages further research on mVQA.

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Novel Relation Detection: Discovering Unknown Relation Types via Multi-Strategy Self-Supervised Learning
Qingbin Liu | Yin Kung | Yanchao Hao | Dianbo Sui | Siyuan Cheng | Xi Chen | Ningyu Zhang | Jiaoyan Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Conventional approaches to relation extraction can only recognize predefined relation types. In the real world, new or out-of-scope relation types may keep challenging the deployed models. In this paper, we formalize such a challenging problem as Novel Relation Detection (NRD), which aims to discover potential new relation types based on training samples of known relations. To this end, we construct two NRD datasets and exhaustively investigate a variety of out-of-scope detection methods. We further propose an effective NRD method that utilizes multi-strategy self-supervised learning to handle the problem of shallow semantic similarity in the NRD task. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, which significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods on both datasets.

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Schema-adaptable Knowledge Graph Construction
Hongbin Ye | Honghao Gui | Xin Xu | Xi Chen | Huajun Chen | Ningyu Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Conventional Knowledge Graph Construction (KGC) approaches typically follow the static information extraction paradigm with a closed set of pre-defined schema. As a result, such approaches fall short when applied to dynamic scenarios or domains, whereas a new type of knowledge emerges. This necessitates a system that can handle evolving schema automatically to extract information for KGC. To address this need, we propose a new task called schema-adaptable KGC, which aims to continually extract entity, relation, and event based on a dynamically changing schema graph without re-training. We first split and convert existing datasets based on three principles to build a benchmark, i.e., horizontal schema expansion, vertical schema expansion, and hybrid schema expansion; then investigate the schema-adaptable performance of several well-known approaches such as Text2Event, TANL, UIE and GPT-3.5. We further propose a simple yet effective baseline dubbed AdaKGC, which contains schema-enriched prefix instructor and schema-conditioned dynamic decoding to better handle evolving schema. Comprehensive experimental results illustrate that AdaKGC can outperform baselines but still have room for improvement. We hope the proposed work can deliver benefits to the community.

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Can We Edit Multimodal Large Language Models?
Siyuan Cheng | Bozhong Tian | Qingbin Liu | Xi Chen | Yongheng Wang | Huajun Chen | Ningyu Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper, we focus on editing multimodal Large Language Models (LLMs). Compared to editing single-modal LLMs, multimodal model editing is more challenging, which demands a higher level of scrutiny and careful consideration in the editing process. To facilitate research in this area, we construct a new benchmark, dubbed MMEdit, for editing multimodal LLMs and establishing a suite of innovative metrics for evaluation. We conduct comprehensive experiments involving various model editing baselines and analyze the impact of editing different components for multimodal LLMs. Empirically, we notice that previous baselines can implement editing multimodal LLMs to some extent, but the effect is still barely satisfactory, indicating the potential difficulty of this task. We hope that our work can provide the NLP community with insights.

2022

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SemEval-2022 Task 8: Multilingual news article similarity
Xi Chen | Ali Zeynali | Chico Camargo | Fabian Flöck | Devin Gaffney | Przemyslaw Grabowicz | Scott Hale | David Jurgens | Mattia Samory
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

Thousands of new news articles appear daily in outlets in different languages. Understanding which articles refer to the same story can not only improve applications like news aggregation but enable cross-linguistic analysis of media consumption and attention. However, assessing the similarity of stories in news articles is challenging due to the different dimensions in which a story might vary, e.g., two articles may have substantial textual overlap but describe similar events that happened years apart. To address this challenge, we introduce a new dataset of nearly 10,000 news article pairs spanning 18 language combinations annotated for seven dimensions of similarity as SemEval 2022 Task 8. Here, we present an overview of the task, the best performing submissions, and the frontiers and challenges for measuring multilingual news article similarity. While the participants of this SemEval task contributed very strong models, achieving up to 0.818 correlation with gold standard labels across languages, human annotators are capable of reaching higher correlations, suggesting space for further progress.

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Finding Influential Instances for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Zifeng Wang | Rui Wen | Xi Chen | Shao-Lun Huang | Ningyu Zhang | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Distant supervision (DS) is a strong way to expand the datasets for enhancing relation extraction (RE) models but often suffers from high label noise. Current works based on attention, reinforcement learning, or GAN are black-box models so they neither provide meaningful interpretation of sample selection in DS nor stability on different domains. On the contrary, this work proposes a novel model-agnostic instance sampling method for DS by influence function (IF), namely REIF. Our method identifies favorable/unfavorable instances in the bag based on IF, then does dynamic instance sampling. We design a fast influence sampling algorithm that reduces the computational complexity from 𝒪(mn) to 𝒪(1), with analyzing its robustness on the selected sampling function. Experiments show that by simply sampling the favorable instances during training, REIF is able to win over a series of baselines which have complicated architectures. We also demonstrate that REIF can support interpretable instance selection.

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Domain-specific knowledge distillation yields smaller and better models for conversational commerce
Kristen Howell | Jian Wang | Akshay Hazare | Joseph Bradley | Chris Brew | Xi Chen | Matthew Dunn | Beth Hockey | Andrew Maurer | Dominic Widdows
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP (ECNLP 5)

We demonstrate that knowledge distillation can be used not only to reduce model size, but to simultaneously adapt a contextual language model to a specific domain. We use Multilingual BERT (mBERT; Devlin et al., 2019) as a starting point and follow the knowledge distillation approach of (Sahn et al., 2019) to train a smaller multilingual BERT model that is adapted to the domain at hand. We show that for in-domain tasks, the domain-specific model shows on average 2.3% improvement in F1 score, relative to a model distilled on domain-general data. Whereas much previous work with BERT has fine-tuned the encoder weights during task training, we show that the model improvements from distillation on in-domain data persist even when the encoder weights are frozen during task training, allowing a single encoder to support classifiers for multiple tasks and languages.

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Crossmodal-3600: A Massively Multilingual Multimodal Evaluation Dataset
Ashish V. Thapliyal | Jordi Pont Tuset | Xi Chen | Radu Soricut
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Research in massively multilingual image captioning has been severely hampered by a lack of high-quality evaluation datasets. In this paper we present the Crossmodal-3600 dataset (XM3600 in short), a geographically diverse set of 3600 images annotated with human-generated reference captions in 36 languages. The images were selected from across the world, covering regions where the 36 languages are spoken, and annotated with captions that achieve consistency in terms of style across all languages, while avoiding annotation artifacts due to direct translation. We apply this benchmark to model selection for massively multilingual image captioning models, and show superior correlation results with human evaluations when using XM3600 as golden references for automatic metrics.

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MuRAG: Multimodal Retrieval-Augmented Generator for Open Question Answering over Images and Text
Wenhu Chen | Hexiang Hu | Xi Chen | Pat Verga | William Cohen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While language Models store a massive amount of world knowledge implicitly in their parameters, even very large models often fail to encode information about rare entities and events, while incurring huge computational costs. Recently, retrieval-augmented models, such as REALM, RAG, and RETRO, have incorporated world knowledge into language generation by leveraging an external non-parametric index and have demonstrated impressive performance with constrained model sizes. However, these methods are restricted to retrieving only textual knowledge, neglecting the ubiquitous amount of knowledge in other modalities like images – much of which contains information not covered by any text. To address this limitation, we propose the first Multimodal Retrieval-Augmented Transformer (MuRAG), which accesses an external non-parametric multimodal memory to augment language generation. MuRAG is pre-trained with a mixture of large-scale image-text and text-only corpora using a joint contrastive and generative loss. We perform experiments on two different datasets that require retrieving and reasoning over both images and text to answer a given query: WebQA, and MultimodalQA. Our results show that MuRAG achieves state-of-the-art accuracy, outperforming existing models by 10-20% absolute on both datasets and under both distractor and full-wiki settings.

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Towards Realistic Low-resource Relation Extraction: A Benchmark with Empirical Baseline Study
Xin Xu | Xiang Chen | Ningyu Zhang | Xin Xie | Xi Chen | Huajun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

This paper presents an empirical study to build relation extraction systems in low-resource settings. Based upon recent pre-trained language models, we comprehensively investigate three schemes to evaluate the performance in low-resource settings: (i) different types of prompt-based methods with few-shot labeled data; (ii) diverse balancing methods to address the long-tailed distribution issue; (iii) data augmentation technologies and self-training to generate more labeled in-domain data. We create a benchmark with 8 relation extraction (RE) datasets covering different languages, domains and contexts and perform extensive comparisons over the proposed schemes with combinations. Our experiments illustrate: (i) Though prompt-based tuning is beneficial in low-resource RE, there is still much potential for improvement, especially in extracting relations from cross-sentence contexts with multiple relational triples; (ii) Balancing methods are not always helpful for RE with long-tailed distribution; (iii) Data augmentation complements existing baselines and can bring much performance gain, while self-training may not consistently achieve advancement to low-resource RE. Code and datasets are in https://github.com/zjunlp/LREBench.

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All You May Need for VQA are Image Captions
Soravit Changpinyo | Doron Kukliansy | Idan Szpektor | Xi Chen | Nan Ding | Radu Soricut
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Visual Question Answering (VQA) has benefited from increasingly sophisticated models, but has not enjoyed the same level of engagement in terms of data creation. In this paper, we propose a method that automatically derives VQA examples at volume, by leveraging the abundance of existing image-caption annotations combined with neural models for textual question generation. We show that the resulting data is of high-quality. VQA models trained on our data improve state-of-the-art zero-shot accuracy by double digits and achieve a level of robustness that lacks in the same model trained on human-annotated VQA data.

2021

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PRGC: Potential Relation and Global Correspondence Based Joint Relational Triple Extraction
Hengyi Zheng | Rui Wen | Xi Chen | Yifan Yang | Yunyan Zhang | Ziheng Zhang | Ningyu Zhang | Bin Qin | Xu Ming | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Joint extraction of entities and relations from unstructured texts is a crucial task in information extraction. Recent methods achieve considerable performance but still suffer from some inherent limitations, such as redundancy of relation prediction, poor generalization of span-based extraction and inefficiency. In this paper, we decompose this task into three subtasks, Relation Judgement, Entity Extraction and Subject-object Alignment from a novel perspective and then propose a joint relational triple extraction framework based on Potential Relation and Global Correspondence (PRGC). Specifically, we design a component to predict potential relations, which constrains the following entity extraction to the predicted relation subset rather than all relations; then a relation-specific sequence tagging component is applied to handle the overlapping problem between subjects and objects; finally, a global correspondence component is designed to align the subject and object into a triple with low-complexity. Extensive experiments show that PRGC achieves state-of-the-art performance on public benchmarks with higher efficiency and delivers consistent performance gain on complex scenarios of overlapping triples. The source code has been submitted as the supplementary material and will be made publicly available after the blind review.

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Field Embedding: A Unified Grain-Based Framework for Word Representation
Junjie Luo | Xi Chen | Jichao Sun | Yuejia Xiang | Ningyu Zhang | Xiang Wan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Word representations empowered with additional linguistic information have been widely studied and proved to outperform traditional embeddings. Current methods mainly focus on learning embeddings for words while embeddings of linguistic information (referred to as grain embeddings) are discarded after the learning. This work proposes a framework field embedding to jointly learn both word and grain embeddings by incorporating morphological, phonetic, and syntactical linguistic fields. The framework leverages an innovative fine-grained pipeline that integrates multiple linguistic fields and produces high-quality grain sequences for learning supreme word representations. A novel algorithm is also designed to learn embeddings for words and grains by capturing information that is contained within each field and that is shared across them. Experimental results of lexical tasks and downstream natural language processing tasks illustrate that our framework can learn better word embeddings and grain embeddings. Qualitative evaluations show grain embeddings effectively capture the semantic information.

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Imperfect also Deserves Reward: Multi-Level and Sequential Reward Modeling for Better Dialog Management
Zhengxu Hou | Bang Liu | Ruihui Zhao | Zijing Ou | Yafei Liu | Xi Chen | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

For task-oriented dialog systems, training a Reinforcement Learning (RL) based Dialog Management module suffers from low sample efficiency and slow convergence speed due to the sparse rewards in RL. To solve this problem, many strategies have been proposed to give proper rewards when training RL, but their rewards lack interpretability and cannot accurately estimate the distribution of state-action pairs in real dialogs. In this paper, we propose a multi-level reward modeling approach that factorizes a reward into a three-level hierarchy: domain, act, and slot. Based on inverse adversarial reinforcement learning, our designed reward model can provide more accurate and explainable reward signals for state-action pairs. Extensive evaluations show that our approach can be applied to a wide range of reinforcement learning-based dialog systems and significantly improves both the performance and the speed of convergence.

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A Three-step Method for Multi-Hop Inference Explanation Regeneration
Yuejia Xiang | Yunyan Zhang | Xiaoming Shi | Bo Liu | Wandi Xu | Xi Chen
Proceedings of the Fifteenth Workshop on Graph-Based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs-15)

Multi-hop inference for explanation generation is to combine two or more facts to make an inference. The task focuses on generating explanations for elementary science questions. In the task, the relevance between the explanations and the QA pairs is of vital importance. To address the task, a three-step framework is proposed. Firstly, vector distance between two texts is utilized to recall the top-K relevant explanations for each question, reducing the calculation consumption. Then, a selection module is employed to choose those most relative facts in an autoregressive manner, giving a preliminary order for the retrieved facts. Thirdly, we adopt a re-ranking module to re-rank the retrieved candidate explanations with relevance between each fact and the QA pairs. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework with an improvement of 39.78% in NDCG over the official baseline.

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Building Goal-oriented Document-grounded Dialogue Systems
Xi Chen | Faner Lin | Yeju Zhou | Kaixin Ma | Jonathan Francis | Eric Nyberg | Alessandro Oltramari
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Document-grounded Dialogue and Conversational Question Answering (DialDoc 2021)

In this paper, we describe our systems for solving the two Doc2Dial shared task: knowledge identification and response generation. We proposed several pre-processing and post-processing methods, and we experimented with data augmentation by pre-training the models on other relevant datasets. Our best model for knowledge identification outperformed the baseline by 10.5+ f1-score on the test-dev split, and our best model for response generation outperformed the baseline by 11+ Sacrebleu score on the test-dev split.

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OntoEA: Ontology-guided Entity Alignment via Joint Knowledge Graph Embedding
Yuejia Xiang | Ziheng Zhang | Jiaoyan Chen | Xi Chen | Zhenxi Lin | Yefeng Zheng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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CONNER: A Cascade Count and Measurement Extraction Tool for Scientific Discourse
Jiarun Cao | Yuejia Xiang | Yunyan Zhang | Zhiyuan Qi | Xi Chen | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper presents our wining contribution to SemEval 2021 Task 8: MeasEval. The purpose of this task is identifying the counts and measurements from clinical scientific discourse, including quantities, entities, properties, qualifiers, units, modifiers, and their mutual relations. This task can be induced to a joint entity and relation extraction problem. Accordingly, we propose CONNER, a cascade count and measurement extraction tool that can identify entities and the corresponding relations in a two-step pipeline model. We provide a detailed description of the proposed model hereinafter. Furthermore, the impact of the essential modules and our in-process technical schemes are also investigated.

2020

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An Industry Evaluation of Embedding-based Entity Alignment
Ziheng Zhang | Hualuo Liu | Jiaoyan Chen | Xi Chen | Bo Liu | YueJia Xiang | Yefeng Zheng
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Industry Track

Embedding-based entity alignment has been widely investigated in recent years, but most proposed methods still rely on an ideal supervised learning setting with a large number of unbiased seed mappings for training and validation, which significantly limits their usage. In this study, we evaluate those state-of-the-art methods in an industrial context, where the impact of seed mappings with different sizes and different biases is explored. Besides the popular benchmarks from DBpedia and Wikidata, we contribute and evaluate a new industrial benchmark that is extracted from two heterogeneous knowledge graphs (KGs) under deployment for medical applications. The experimental results enable the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these alignment methods and the further discussion of suitable strategies for their industrial deployment.

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Sketching the English Translations of Kumārajīva’s The Diamond Sutra: A Comparison of Individual Translators and Translation Teams
Xi Chen | Vincent Xian Wang | Chu-Ren Huang
Proceedings of the 34th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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A Parallel Corpus-driven Approach to Bilingual Oenology Term Banks: How Culture Differences Influence Wine Tasting Terms
Vincent Xian Wang | Xi Chen | Songnan Quan | Chu-Ren Huang
Proceedings of the 34th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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Summarizing Chinese Medical Answer with Graph Convolution Networks and Question-focused Dual Attention
Ningyu Zhang | Shumin Deng | Juan Li | Xi Chen | Wei Zhang | Huajun Chen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Online search engines are a popular source of medical information for users, where users can enter questions and obtain relevant answers. It is desirable to generate answer summaries for online search engines, particularly summaries that can reveal direct answers to questions. Moreover, answer summaries are expected to reveal the most relevant information in response to questions; hence, the summaries should be generated with a focus on the question, which is a challenging topic-focused summarization task. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes graph convolution networks and question-focused dual attention for Chinese medical answer summarization. We first organize the original long answer text into a medical concept graph with graph convolution networks to better understand the internal structure of the text and the correlation between medical concepts. Then, we introduce a question-focused dual attention mechanism to generate summaries relevant to questions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model can generate more coherent and informative summaries compared with baseline models.

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Improving Text Generation Evaluation with Batch Centering and Tempered Word Mover Distance
Xi Chen | Nan Ding | Tomer Levinboim | Radu Soricut
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

Recent advances in automatic evaluation metrics for text have shown that deep contextualized word representations, such as those generated by BERT encoders, are helpful for designing metrics that correlate well with human judgements. At the same time, it has been argued that contextualized word representations exhibit sub-optimal statistical properties for encoding the true similarity between words or sentences. In this paper, we present two techniques for improving encoding representations for similarity metrics: a batch-mean centering strategy that improves statistical properties; and a computationally efficient tempered Word Mover Distance, for better fusion of the information in the contextualized word representations. We conduct numerical experiments that demonstrate the robustness of our techniques, reporting results over various BERT-backbone learned metrics and achieving state of the art correlation with human ratings on several benchmarks.

2019

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UER: An Open-Source Toolkit for Pre-training Models
Zhe Zhao | Hui Chen | Jinbin Zhang | Xin Zhao | Tao Liu | Wei Lu | Xi Chen | Haotang Deng | Qi Ju | Xiaoyong Du
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

Existing works, including ELMO and BERT, have revealed the importance of pre-training for NLP tasks. While there does not exist a single pre-training model that works best in all cases, it is of necessity to develop a framework that is able to deploy various pre-training models efficiently. For this purpose, we propose an assemble-on-demand pre-training toolkit, namely Universal Encoder Representations (UER). UER is loosely coupled, and encapsulated with rich modules. By assembling modules on demand, users can either reproduce a state-of-the-art pre-training model or develop a pre-training model that remains unexplored. With UER, we have built a model zoo, which contains pre-trained models based on different corpora, encoders, and targets (objectives). With proper pre-trained models, we could achieve new state-of-the-art results on a range of downstream datasets.

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Long-tail Relation Extraction via Knowledge Graph Embeddings and Graph Convolution Networks
Ningyu Zhang | Shumin Deng | Zhanlin Sun | Guanying Wang | Xi Chen | Wei Zhang | Huajun Chen
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We propose a distance supervised relation extraction approach for long-tailed, imbalanced data which is prevalent in real-world settings. Here, the challenge is to learn accurate “few-shot” models for classes existing at the tail of the class distribution, for which little data is available. Inspired by the rich semantic correlations between classes at the long tail and those at the head, we take advantage of the knowledge from data-rich classes at the head of the distribution to boost the performance of the data-poor classes at the tail. First, we propose to leverage implicit relational knowledge among class labels from knowledge graph embeddings and learn explicit relational knowledge using graph convolution networks. Second, we integrate that relational knowledge into relation extraction model by coarse-to-fine knowledge-aware attention mechanism. We demonstrate our results for a large-scale benchmark dataset which show that our approach significantly outperforms other baselines, especially for long-tail relations.

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Detecting Customer Complaint Escalation with Recurrent Neural Networks and Manually-Engineered Features
Wei Yang | Luchen Tan | Chunwei Lu | Anqi Cui | Han Li | Xi Chen | Kun Xiong | Muzi Wang | Ming Li | Jian Pei | Jimmy Lin
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Industry Papers)

Consumers dissatisfied with the normal dispute resolution process provided by an e-commerce company’s customer service agents have the option of escalating their complaints by filing grievances with a government authority. This paper tackles the challenge of monitoring ongoing text chat dialogues to identify cases where the customer expresses such an intent, providing triage and prioritization for a separate pool of specialized agents specially trained to handle more complex situations. We describe a hybrid model that tackles this challenge by integrating recurrent neural networks with manually-engineered features. Experiments show that both components are complementary and contribute to overall recall, outperforming competitive baselines. A trial online deployment of our model demonstrates its business value in improving customer service.

2018

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Attention-Based Capsule Networks with Dynamic Routing for Relation Extraction
Ningyu Zhang | Shumin Deng | Zhanling Sun | Xi Chen | Wei Zhang | Huajun Chen
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

A capsule is a group of neurons, whose activity vector represents the instantiation parameters of a specific type of entity. In this paper, we explore the capsule networks used for relation extraction in a multi-instance multi-label learning framework and propose a novel neural approach based on capsule networks with attention mechanisms. We evaluate our method with different benchmarks, and it is demonstrated that our method improves the precision of the predicted relations. Particularly, we show that capsule networks improve multiple entity pairs relation extraction.

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Label-Free Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction via Knowledge Graph Embedding
Guanying Wang | Wen Zhang | Ruoxu Wang | Yalin Zhou | Xi Chen | Wei Zhang | Hai Zhu | Huajun Chen
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Distant supervision is an effective method to generate large scale labeled data for relation extraction, which assumes that if a pair of entities appears in some relation of a Knowledge Graph (KG), all sentences containing those entities in a large unlabeled corpus are then labeled with that relation to train a relation classifier. However, when the pair of entities has multiple relationships in the KG, this assumption may produce noisy relation labels. This paper proposes a label-free distant supervision method, which makes no use of the relation labels under this inadequate assumption, but only uses the prior knowledge derived from the KG to supervise the learning of the classifier directly and softly. Specifically, we make use of the type information and the translation law derived from typical KG embedding model to learn embeddings for certain sentence patterns. As the supervision signal is only determined by the two aligned entities, neither hard relation labels nor extra noise-reduction model for the bag of sentences is needed in this way. The experiments show that the approach performs well in current distant supervision dataset.

2016

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Building a Dataset for Possessions Identification in Text
Carmen Banea | Xi Chen | Rada Mihalcea
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Just as industrialization matured from mass production to customization and personalization, so has the Web migrated from generic content to public disclosures of one’s most intimately held thoughts, opinions and beliefs. This relatively new type of data is able to represent finer and more narrowly defined demographic slices. If until now researchers have primarily focused on leveraging personalized content to identify latent information such as gender, nationality, location, or age of the author, this study seeks to establish a structured way of extracting possessions, or items that people own or are entitled to, as a way to ultimately provide insights into people’s behaviors and characteristics. In order to promote more research in this area, we are releasing a set of 798 possessions extracted from blog genre, where possessions are marked at different confidence levels, as well as a detailed set of guidelines to help in future annotation studies.
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