Xian Li


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Towards Open-World Product Attribute Mining: A Lightly-Supervised Approach
Liyan Xu | Chenwei Zhang | Xian Li | Jingbo Shang | Jinho D. Choi
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a new task setting for attribute mining on e-commerce products, serving as a practical solution to extract open-world attributes without extensive human intervention. Our supervision comes from a high-quality seed attribute set bootstrapped from existing resources, and we aim to expand the attribute vocabulary of existing seed types, and also to discover any new attribute types automatically. A new dataset is created to support our setting, and our approach Amacer is proposed specifically to tackle the limited supervision. Especially, given that no direct supervision is available for those unseen new attributes, our novel formulation exploits self-supervised heuristic and unsupervised latent attributes, which attains implicit semantic signals as additional supervision by leveraging product context. Experiments suggest that our approach surpasses various baselines by 12 F1, expanding attributes of existing types significantly by up to 12 times, and discovering values from 39% new types.

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Tab-Cleaner: Weakly Supervised Tabular Data Cleaning via Pre-training for E-commerce Catalog
Kewei Cheng | Xian Li | Zhengyang Wang | Chenwei Zhang | Binxuan Huang | Yifan Ethan Xu | Xin Luna Dong | Yizhou Sun
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 5: Industry Track)

Product catalogs, conceptually in the form of text-rich tables, are self-reported by individual retailers and thus inevitably contain noisy facts. Verifying such textual attributes in product catalogs is essential to improve their reliability. However, popular methods for processing free-text content, such as pre-trained language models, are not particularly effective on structured tabular data since they are typically trained on free-form natural language texts. In this paper, we present Tab-Cleaner, a model designed to handle error detection over text-rich tabular data following a pre-training / fine-tuning paradigm. We train Tab-Cleaner on a real-world Amazon Product Catalog table w.r.t millions of products and show improvements over state-of-the-art methods by 16\% on PR AUC over attribute applicability classification task and by 11\% on PR AUC over attribute value validation task.

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PV2TEA: Patching Visual Modality to Textual-Established Information Extraction
Hejie Cui | Rongmei Lin | Nasser Zalmout | Chenwei Zhang | Jingbo Shang | Carl Yang | Xian Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Information extraction, e.g., attribute value extraction, has been extensively studied and formulated based only on text. However, many attributes can benefit from image-based extraction, like color, shape, pattern, among others. The visual modality has long been underutilized, mainly due to multimodal annotation difficulty. In this paper, we aim to patch the visual modality to the textual-established attribute in- formation extractor. The cross-modality integration faces several unique challenges: (C1) images and textual descriptions are loosely paired intra-sample and inter-samples; (C2) images usually contain rich backgrounds that can mislead the prediction; (C3) weakly supervised labels from textual-established ex- tractors are biased for multimodal training. We present PV2TEA, an encoder-decoder architecture equipped with three bias reduction schemes: (S1) Augmented label-smoothed contrast to improve the cross-modality alignment for loosely-paired image and text; (S2) Attention-pruning that adaptively distinguishes the visual foreground; (S3) Two-level neighborhood regularization that mitigates the label textual bias via reliability estimation. Empirical results on real-world e-Commerce datasets1 demonstrate up to 11.74% absolute (20.97% relatively) F1 increase over unimodal baselines.

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Concept2Box: Joint Geometric Embeddings for Learning Two-View Knowledge Graphs
Zijie Huang | Daheng Wang | Binxuan Huang | Chenwei Zhang | Jingbo Shang | Yan Liang | Zhengyang Wang | Xian Li | Christos Faloutsos | Yizhou Sun | Wei Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Knowledge graph embeddings (KGE) have been extensively studied to embed large-scale relational data for many real-world applications. Existing methods have long ignored the fact many KGs contain two fundamentally different views: high-level ontology-view concepts and fine-grained instance-view entities. They usually embed all nodes as vectors in one latent space. However, a single geometric representation fails to capture the structural differences between two views and lacks probabilistic semantics towards concepts’ granularity. We propose Concept2Box, a novel approach that jointly embeds the two views of a KG using dual geometric representations. We model concepts with box embeddings, which learn the hierarchy structure and complex relations such as overlap and disjoint among them. Box volumes can be interpreted as concepts’ granularity. Different from concepts, we model entities as vectors. To bridge the gap between concept box embeddings and entity vector embeddings, we propose a novel vector-to-box distance metric and learn both embeddings jointly. Experiments on both the public DBpedia KG and a newly-created industrial KG showed the effectiveness of Concept2Box.

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Knowledge-Selective Pretraining for Attribute Value Extraction
Hui Liu | Qingyu Yin | Zhengyang Wang | Chenwei Zhang | Haoming Jiang | Yifan Gao | Zheng Li | Xian Li | Chao Zhang | Bing Yin | William Wang | Xiaodan Zhu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Attribute Value Extraction (AVE) aims to retrieve the values of attributes from the product profiles. The state-of-the-art methods tackle the AVE task through a question-answering (QA) paradigm, where the value is predicted from the context (i.e. product profile) given a query (i.e. attributes). Despite of the substantial advancements that have been made, the performance of existing methods on rare attributes is still far from satisfaction, and they cannot be easily extended to unseen attributes due to the poor generalization ability. In this work, we propose to leverage pretraining and transfer learning to address the aforementioned weaknesses. We first collect the product information from various E-commerce stores and retrieve a large number of (profile, attribute, value) triples, which will be used as the pretraining corpus. To more effectively utilize the retrieved corpus, we further design a Knowledge-Selective Framework (KSelF) based on query expansion that can be closely combined with the pretraining corpus to boost the performance. Meanwhile, considering the public AE-pub dataset contains considerable noise, we construct and contribute a larger benchmark EC-AVE collected from E-commerce websites. We conduct evaluation on both of these datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed KSelF achieves new state-of-the-art performance without pretraining. When incorporated with the pretraining corpus, the performance of KSelF can be further improved, particularly on the attributes with limited training resources.

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Towards A Unified View of Sparse Feed-Forward Network in Pretraining Large Language Model
Zeyu Liu | Tim Dettmers | Xi Lin | Veselin Stoyanov | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large and sparse feed-forward layers (S-FFN) such as Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) have proven effective in scaling up Transformers model size for pretraining large language models. By only activating part of the FFN parameters conditioning on input, S-FFN improves generalization performance while keeping training and inference costs (in FLOPs) fixed. In this work, we analyzed two major design choices of S-FFN: the memory block (a.k.a. expert) size and the memory block selection method under a general conceptual framework of sparse neural memory. Using this unified framework, we compare several S-FFN architectures for language modeling and provide insights into their relative efficacy and efficiency. We found a simpler selection method — Avg-K that selects blocks through their mean aggregated hidden states, achieving lower perplexity in language model pretraining compared to existing MoE architectures including Switch Transformer (Fedus et al., 2021) and HashLayer (Roller et al., 2021).

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Generative Models for Product Attribute Extraction
Ansel Blume | Nasser Zalmout | Heng Ji | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Product attribute extraction is an emerging field in information extraction and e-commerce, with applications including knowledge base construction, product recommendation, and enhancing customer experiences. In this work, we explore the use of generative models for product attribute extraction. We analyze their utility with hard and soft prompting methods, and demonstrate their ability to generate implicit attribute values, which state-of-the-art sequence tagging models are unable to extract. We perform a wide range of experiments on Amazon and MAVE product attribute datasets, and are the first to present results on multilingual attribute extraction. Our results show that generative models can outperform state- of-the-art tagging models for explicit product attribute extraction while having greater data efficiency, that they have the unique ability to perform implicit attribute extraction, and that in certain settings large language models can perform competitively with finetuned models with as little as two in-context examples.

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Methods for Measuring, Updating, and Visualizing Factual Beliefs in Language Models
Peter Hase | Mona Diab | Asli Celikyilmaz | Xian Li | Zornitsa Kozareva | Veselin Stoyanov | Mohit Bansal | Srinivasan Iyer
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Language models can memorize a considerable amount of factual information during pretraining that can be elicited through prompting or finetuning models on tasks like question answering. In this paper, we discuss approaches to measuring model factual beliefs, updating incorrect factual beliefs in models, and visualizing graphical relationships between factual beliefs. Our main contributions include: (1) new metrics for evaluating belief-updating methods focusing on the logical consistency of beliefs, (2) a training objective for Sequential, Local, and Generalizing updates (SLAG) that improves the performance of existing hypernetwork approaches, and (3) the introduction of the belief graph, a new form of visualization for language models that shows relationships between stored model beliefs. Our experiments suggest that models show only limited consistency between factual beliefs, but update methods can both fix incorrect model beliefs and greatly improve their consistency. Although off-the-shelf optimizers are surprisingly strong belief-updating baselines, our learned optimizers can outperform them in more difficult settings than have been considered in past work.


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Unified Speech-Text Pre-training for Speech Translation and Recognition
Yun Tang | Hongyu Gong | Ning Dong | Changhan Wang | Wei-Ning Hsu | Jiatao Gu | Alexei Baevski | Xian Li | Abdelrahman Mohamed | Michael Auli | Juan Pino
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this work, we describe a method to jointly pre-train speech and text in an encoder-decoder modeling framework for speech translation and recognition. The proposed method utilizes multi-task learning to integrate four self-supervised and supervised subtasks for cross modality learning. A self-supervised speech subtask, which leverages unlabelled speech data, and a (self-)supervised text to text subtask, which makes use of abundant text training data, take up the majority of the pre-training time. Two auxiliary supervised speech tasks are included to unify speech and text modeling space. Detailed analysis reveals learning interference among subtasks. In order to alleviate the subtask interference, two pre-training configurations are proposed for speech translation and speech recognition respectively. Our experiments show the proposed method can effectively fuse speech and text information into one model. It achieves between 1.7 and 2.3 BLEU improvement above the state of the art on the MuST-C speech translation dataset and comparable WERs to wav2vec 2.0 on the Librispeech speech recognition task.

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ToKen: Task Decomposition and Knowledge Infusion for Few-Shot Hate Speech Detection
Badr AlKhamissi | Faisal Ladhak | Srinivasan Iyer | Veselin Stoyanov | Zornitsa Kozareva | Xian Li | Pascale Fung | Lambert Mathias | Asli Celikyilmaz | Mona Diab
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Hate speech detection is complex; it relies on commonsense reasoning, knowledge of stereotypes, and an understanding of social nuance that differs from one culture to the next. It is also difficult to collect a large-scale hate speech annotated dataset. In this work, we frame this problem as a few-shot learning task, and show significant gains with decomposing the task into its “constituent” parts. In addition, we see that infusing knowledge from reasoning datasets (e.g. ATOMIC2020) improves the performance even further. Moreover, we observe that the trained models generalize to out-of-distribution datasets, showing the superiority of task decomposition and knowledge infusion compared to previously used methods. Concretely, our method outperforms the baseline by 17.83% absolute gain in the 16-shot case.

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Few-shot Learning with Multilingual Generative Language Models
Xi Victoria Lin | Todor Mihaylov | Mikel Artetxe | Tianlu Wang | Shuohui Chen | Daniel Simig | Myle Ott | Naman Goyal | Shruti Bhosale | Jingfei Du | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Sam Shleifer | Punit Singh Koura | Vishrav Chaudhary | Brian O’Horo | Jeff Wang | Luke Zettlemoyer | Zornitsa Kozareva | Mona Diab | Veselin Stoyanov | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large-scale generative language models such as GPT-3 are competitive few-shot learners. While these models are known to be able to jointly represent many different languages, their training data is dominated by English, potentially limiting their cross-lingual generalization. In this work, we train multilingual generative language models on a corpus covering a diverse set of languages, and study their few- and zero-shot learning capabilities in a wide range of tasks. Our largest model with 7.5 billion parameters sets new state of the art in few-shot learning in more than 20 representative languages, outperforming GPT-3 of comparable size in multilingual commonsense reasoning (with +7.4% absolute accuracy improvement in 0-shot settings and +9.4% in 4-shot settings) and natural language inference (+5.4% in each of 0-shot and 4-shot settings). On the FLORES-101 machine translation benchmark, our model outperforms GPT-3 on 171 out of 182 directions with 32 training examples, while surpassing the official supervised baseline in 45 directions. We conduct an in-depth analysis of different multilingual prompting approaches, showing in particular that strong few-shot learning performance across languages can be achieved via cross-lingual transfer through both templates and demonstration examples.

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Efficient Large Scale Language Modeling with Mixtures of Experts
Mikel Artetxe | Shruti Bhosale | Naman Goyal | Todor Mihaylov | Myle Ott | Sam Shleifer | Xi Victoria Lin | Jingfei Du | Srinivasan Iyer | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Giridharan Anantharaman | Xian Li | Shuohui Chen | Halil Akin | Mandeep Baines | Louis Martin | Xing Zhou | Punit Singh Koura | Brian O’Horo | Jeffrey Wang | Luke Zettlemoyer | Mona Diab | Zornitsa Kozareva | Veselin Stoyanov
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Mixture of Experts layers (MoEs) enable efficient scaling of language models through conditional computation. This paper presents a detailed empirical study of how autoregressive MoE language models scale in comparison with dense models in a wide range of settings: in- and out-of-domain language modeling, zero- and few-shot priming, and full-shot fine-tuning. With the exception of fine-tuning, we find MoEs to be substantially more compute efficient. At more modest training budgets, MoEs can match the performance of dense models using ~4 times less compute. This gap narrows at scale, but our largest MoE model (1.1T parameters) consistently outperforms a compute-equivalent dense model (6.7B parameters). Overall, this performance gap varies greatly across tasks and domains, suggesting that MoE and dense models generalize differently in ways that are worthy of future study. We make our code and models publicly available for research use.

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Ask-and-Verify: Span Candidate Generation and Verification for Attribute Value Extraction
Yifan Ding | Yan Liang | Nasser Zalmout | Xian Li | Christan Grant | Tim Weninger
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

The product attribute value extraction (AVE) task aims to capture key factual information from product profiles, and is useful for several downstream applications in e-Commerce platforms. Previous contributions usually formulate this task using sequence labeling or reading comprehension architectures. However, sequence labeling models tend to be conservative in their predictions resulting in a high false negative rate. Existing reading comprehension formulations, on the other hand, can over-generate attribute values which hinders precision. In the present work we address these limitations with a new end-to-end pipeline framework called Ask-and-Verify. Given a product and an attribute query, the Ask step detects the top-K span candidates (i.e. possible attribute values) from the product profiles, then the Verify step filters out false positive candidates. We evaluate Ask-and-Verify model on Amazon’s product pages and AliExpress public dataset, and present a comparative analysis as well as a detailed ablation study. Despite its simplicity, we show that Ask-and-Verify outperforms recent state-of-the-art models by up to 3.1% F1 absolute improvement points, while also scaling to thousands of attributes.

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Prototype-Representations for Training Data Filtering in Weakly-Supervised Information Extraction
Nasser Zalmout | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

The availability of high quality training data is still a bottleneck for the practical utilization of information extraction models, despite the breakthroughs in zero and few-shot learning techniques. This is further exacerbated for industry applications, where new tasks, domains, and specific use cases keep arising, which makes it impractical to depend on manually annotated data. Therefore, weak and distant supervision emerged as popular approaches to bootstrap training, utilizing labeling functions to guide the annotation process. Weakly-supervised annotation of training data is fast and efficient, however, it results in many irrelevant and out-of-context matches. This is a challenging problem that can degrade the performance in downstream models, or require a manual data cleaning step that can incur significant overhead. In this paper we present a prototype-based filtering approach, that can be utilized to denoise weakly supervised training data. The system is very simple, unsupervised, scalable, and requires little manual intervention, yet results in significant precision gains. We apply the technique in the task of attribute value extraction in e-commerce websites, and achieve up to 9% gain in precision for the downstream models, with a minimal drop in recall.

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Lifting the Curse of Multilinguality by Pre-training Modular Transformers
Jonas Pfeiffer | Naman Goyal | Xi Lin | Xian Li | James Cross | Sebastian Riedel | Mikel Artetxe
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Multilingual pre-trained models are known to suffer from the curse of multilinguality, which causes per-language performance to drop as they cover more languages. We address this issue by introducing language-specific modules, which allows us to grow the total capacity of the model, while keeping the total number of trainable parameters per language constant. In contrast with prior work that learns language-specific components post-hoc, we pre-train the modules of our Cross-lingual Modular (X-Mod) models from the start. Our experiments on natural language inference, named entity recognition and question answering show that our approach not only mitigates the negative interference between languages, but also enables positive transfer, resulting in improved monolingual and cross-lingual performance. Furthermore, our approach enables adding languages post-hoc with no measurable drop in performance, no longer limiting the model usage to the set of pre-trained languages.


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Multilingual Neural Machine Translation with Deep Encoder and Multiple Shallow Decoders
Xiang Kong | Adithya Renduchintala | James Cross | Yuqing Tang | Jiatao Gu | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Recent work in multilingual translation advances translation quality surpassing bilingual baselines using deep transformer models with increased capacity. However, the extra latency and memory costs introduced by this approach may make it unacceptable for efficiency-constrained applications. It has recently been shown for bilingual translation that using a deep encoder and shallow decoder (DESD) can reduce inference latency while maintaining translation quality, so we study similar speed-accuracy trade-offs for multilingual translation. We find that for many-to-one translation we can indeed increase decoder speed without sacrificing quality using this approach, but for one-to-many translation, shallow decoders cause a clear quality drop. To ameliorate this drop, we propose a deep encoder with multiple shallow decoders (DEMSD) where each shallow decoder is responsible for a disjoint subset of target languages. Specifically, the DEMSD model with 2-layer decoders is able to obtain a 1.8x speedup on average compared to a standard transformer model with no drop in translation quality.

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Recipes for Adapting Pre-trained Monolingual and Multilingual Models to Machine Translation
Asa Cooper Stickland | Xian Li | Marjan Ghazvininejad
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

There has been recent success in pre-training on monolingual data and fine-tuning on Machine Translation (MT), but it remains unclear how to best leverage a pre-trained model for a given MT task. This paper investigates the benefits and drawbacks of freezing parameters, and adding new ones, when fine-tuning a pre-trained model on MT. We focus on 1) Fine-tuning a model trained only on English monolingual data, BART. 2) Fine-tuning a model trained on monolingual data from 25 languages, mBART. For BART we get the best performance by freezing most of the model parameters, and adding extra positional embeddings. For mBART we match or outperform the performance of naive fine-tuning for most language pairs with the encoder, and most of the decoder, frozen. The encoder-decoder attention parameters are most important to fine-tune. When constraining ourselves to an out-of-domain training set for Vietnamese to English we see the largest improvements over the fine-tuning baseline.

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Multilingual Speech Translation from Efficient Finetuning of Pretrained Models
Xian Li | Changhan Wang | Yun Tang | Chau Tran | Yuqing Tang | Juan Pino | Alexei Baevski | Alexis Conneau | Michael Auli
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a simple yet effective approach to build multilingual speech-to-text (ST) translation through efficient transfer learning from a pretrained speech encoder and text decoder. Our key finding is that a minimalistic LNA (LayerNorm and Attention) finetuning can achieve zero-shot crosslingual and cross-modality transfer ability by only finetuning 10 50% of the pretrained parameters. This effectively leverages large pretrained models at low training cost such as wav2vec 2.0 for acoustic modeling, and mBART for multilingual text generation. This sets a new state-of-the-art for 36 translation directions (and surpassing cascaded ST for 26 of them) on the large-scale multilingual ST benchmark CoVoST 2 (+6.4 BLEU on average for En-X directions and +6.7 BLEU for X-En directions). Our approach demonstrates strong zero-shot performance in a many-to-many multilingual model (+5.6 BLEU on average across 28 non-English directions), making it an appealing approach for attaining high-quality speech translation with improved parameter and data efficiency.

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Improving Zero-Shot Translation by Disentangling Positional Information
Danni Liu | Jan Niehues | James Cross | Francisco Guzmán | Xian Li
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Multilingual neural machine translation has shown the capability of directly translating between language pairs unseen in training, i.e. zero-shot translation. Despite being conceptually attractive, it often suffers from low output quality. The difficulty of generalizing to new translation directions suggests the model representations are highly specific to those language pairs seen in training. We demonstrate that a main factor causing the language-specific representations is the positional correspondence to input tokens. We show that this can be easily alleviated by removing residual connections in an encoder layer. With this modification, we gain up to 18.5 BLEU points on zero-shot translation while retaining quality on supervised directions. The improvements are particularly prominent between related languages, where our proposed model outperforms pivot-based translation. Moreover, our approach allows easy integration of new languages, which substantially expands translation coverage. By thorough inspections of the hidden layer outputs, we show that our approach indeed leads to more language-independent representations.

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Improving Speech Translation by Understanding and Learning from the Auxiliary Text Translation Task
Yun Tang | Juan Pino | Xian Li | Changhan Wang | Dmitriy Genzel
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pretraining and multitask learning are widely used to improve the speech translation performance. In this study, we are interested in training a speech translation model along with an auxiliary text translation task. We conduct a detailed analysis to understand the impact of the auxiliary task on the primary task within the multitask learning framework. Our analysis confirms that multitask learning tends to generate similar decoder representations from different modalities and preserve more information from the pretrained text translation modules. We observe minimal negative transfer effect between the two tasks and sharing more parameters is helpful to transfer knowledge from the text task to the speech task. The analysis also reveals that the modality representation difference at the top decoder layers is still not negligible, and those layers are critical for the translation quality. Inspired by these findings, we propose three methods to improve translation quality. First, a parameter sharing and initialization strategy is proposed to enhance information sharing between the tasks. Second, a novel attention-based regularization is proposed for the encoders and pulls the representations from different modalities closer. Third, an online knowledge distillation is proposed to enhance the knowledge transfer from the text to the speech task. Our experiments show that the proposed approach improves translation performance by more than 2 BLEU over a strong baseline and achieves state-of-the-art results on the MuST-C English-German, English-French and English-Spanish language pairs.

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Gender bias amplification during Speed-Quality optimization in Neural Machine Translation
Adithya Renduchintala | Denise Diaz | Kenneth Heafield | Xian Li | Mona Diab
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Is bias amplified when neural machine translation (NMT) models are optimized for speed and evaluated on generic test sets using BLEU? We investigate architectures and techniques commonly used to speed up decoding in Transformer-based models, such as greedy search, quantization, average attention networks (AANs) and shallow decoder models and show their effect on gendered noun translation. We construct a new gender bias test set, SimpleGEN, based on gendered noun phrases in which there is a single, unambiguous, correct answer. While we find minimal overall BLEU degradation as we apply speed optimizations, we observe that gendered noun translation performance degrades at a much faster rate.

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Distributionally Robust Multilingual Machine Translation
Chunting Zhou | Daniel Levy | Xian Li | Marjan Ghazvininejad | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) learns to translate multiple language pairs with a single model, potentially improving both the accuracy and the memory-efficiency of deployed models. However, the heavy data imbalance between languages hinders the model from performing uniformly across language pairs. In this paper, we propose a new learning objective for MNMT based on distributionally robust optimization, which minimizes the worst-case expected loss over the set of language pairs. We further show how to practically optimize this objective for large translation corpora using an iterated best response scheme, which is both effective and incurs negligible additional computational cost compared to standard empirical risk minimization. We perform extensive experiments on three sets of languages from two datasets and show that our method consistently outperforms strong baseline methods in terms of average and per-language performance under both many-to-one and one-to-many translation settings.

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FST: the FAIR Speech Translation System for the IWSLT21 Multilingual Shared Task
Yun Tang | Hongyu Gong | Xian Li | Changhan Wang | Juan Pino | Holger Schwenk | Naman Goyal
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2021)

In this paper, we describe our end-to-end multilingual speech translation system submitted to the IWSLT 2021 evaluation campaign on the Multilingual Speech Translation shared task. Our system is built by leveraging transfer learning across modalities, tasks and languages. First, we leverage general-purpose multilingual modules pretrained with large amounts of unlabelled and labelled data. We further enable knowledge transfer from the text task to the speech task by training two tasks jointly. Finally, our multilingual model is finetuned on speech translation task-specific data to achieve the best translation results. Experimental results show our system outperforms the reported systems, including both end-to-end and cascaded based approaches, by a large margin. In some translation directions, our speech translation results evaluated on the public Multilingual TEDx test set are even comparable with the ones from a strong text-to-text translation system, which uses the oracle speech transcripts as input.

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Multilingual Translation from Denoising Pre-Training
Yuqing Tang | Chau Tran | Xian Li | Peng-Jen Chen | Naman Goyal | Vishrav Chaudhary | Jiatao Gu | Angela Fan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Addressing Posterior Collapse with Mutual Information for Improved Variational Neural Machine Translation
Arya D. McCarthy | Xian Li | Jiatao Gu | Ning Dong
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper proposes a simple and effective approach to address the problem of posterior collapse in conditional variational autoencoders (CVAEs). It thus improves performance of machine translation models that use noisy or monolingual data, as well as in conventional settings. Extending Transformer and conditional VAEs, our proposed latent variable model measurably prevents posterior collapse by (1) using a modified evidence lower bound (ELBO) objective which promotes mutual information between the latent variable and the target, and (2) guiding the latent variable with an auxiliary bag-of-words prediction task. As a result, the proposed model yields improved translation quality compared to existing variational NMT models on WMT Ro↔En and De↔En. With latent variables being effectively utilized, our model demonstrates improved robustness over non-latent Transformer in handling uncertainty: exploiting noisy source-side monolingual data (up to +3.2 BLEU), and training with weakly aligned web-mined parallel data (up to +4.7 BLEU).

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Alexandra Birch | Andrew Finch | Hiroaki Hayashi | Kenneth Heafield | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Ioannis Konstas | Xian Li | Graham Neubig | Yusuke Oda
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

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Findings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation
Kenneth Heafield | Hiroaki Hayashi | Yusuke Oda | Ioannis Konstas | Andrew Finch | Graham Neubig | Xian Li | Alexandra Birch
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

We describe the finding of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation, held in concert with the annual conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2020). First, we summarize the research trends of papers presented in the proceedings. Second, we describe the results of the three shared tasks 1) efficient neural machine translation (NMT) where participants were tasked with creating NMT systems that are both accurate and efficient, and 2) document-level generation and translation (DGT) where participants were tasked with developing systems that generate summaries from structured data, potentially with assistance from text in another language and 3) STAPLE task: creation of as many possible translations of a given input text. This last shared task was organised by Duolingo.

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Findings of the WMT 2020 Shared Task on Machine Translation Robustness
Lucia Specia | Zhenhao Li | Juan Pino | Vishrav Chaudhary | Francisco Guzmán | Graham Neubig | Nadir Durrani | Yonatan Belinkov | Philipp Koehn | Hassan Sajjad | Paul Michel | Xian Li
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

We report the findings of the second edition of the shared task on improving robustness in Machine Translation (MT). The task aims to test current machine translation systems in their ability to handle challenges facing MT models to be deployed in the real world, including domain diversity and non-standard texts common in user generated content, especially in social media. We cover two language pairs – English-German and English-Japanese and provide test sets in zero-shot and few-shot variants. Participating systems are evaluated both automatically and manually, with an additional human evaluation for ”catastrophic errors”. We received 59 submissions by 11 participating teams from a variety of types of institutions.

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Multilingual Denoising Pre-training for Neural Machine Translation
Yinhan Liu | Jiatao Gu | Naman Goyal | Xian Li | Sergey Edunov | Marjan Ghazvininejad | Mike Lewis | Luke Zettlemoyer
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 8

This paper demonstrates that multilingual denoising pre-training produces significant performance gains across a wide variety of machine translation (MT) tasks. We present mBART—a sequence-to-sequence denoising auto-encoder pre-trained on large-scale monolingual corpora in many languages using the BART objective (Lewis et al., 2019). mBART is the first method for pre-training a complete sequence-to-sequence model by denoising full texts in multiple languages, whereas previous approaches have focused only on the encoder, decoder, or reconstructing parts of the text. Pre-training a complete model allows it to be directly fine-tuned for supervised (both sentence-level and document-level) and unsupervised machine translation, with no task- specific modifications. We demonstrate that adding mBART initialization produces performance gains in all but the highest-resource settings, including up to 12 BLEU points for low resource MT and over 5 BLEU points for many document-level and unsupervised models. We also show that it enables transfer to language pairs with no bi-text or that were not in the pre-training corpus, and present extensive analysis of which factors contribute the most to effective pre-training.1


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Findings of the First Shared Task on Machine Translation Robustness
Xian Li | Paul Michel | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Yonatan Belinkov | Nadir Durrani | Orhan Firat | Philipp Koehn | Graham Neubig | Juan Pino | Hassan Sajjad
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

We share the findings of the first shared task on improving robustness of Machine Translation (MT). The task provides a testbed representing challenges facing MT models deployed in the real world, and facilitates new approaches to improve models’ robustness to noisy input and domain mismatch. We focus on two language pairs (English-French and English-Japanese), and the submitted systems are evaluated on a blind test set consisting of noisy comments on Reddit and professionally sourced translations. As a new task, we received 23 submissions by 11 participating teams from universities, companies, national labs, etc. All submitted systems achieved large improvements over baselines, with the best improvement having +22.33 BLEU. We evaluated submissions by both human judgment and automatic evaluation (BLEU), which shows high correlations (Pearson’s r = 0.94 and 0.95). Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the submitted systems using compare-mt, which revealed their salient differences in handling challenges in this task. Such analysis provides additional insights when there is occasional disagreement between human judgment and BLEU, e.g. systems better at producing colloquial expressions received higher score from human judgment.

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FlowSeq: Non-Autoregressive Conditional Sequence Generation with Generative Flow
Xuezhe Ma | Chunting Zhou | Xian Li | Graham Neubig | Eduard Hovy
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Most sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models are autoregressive; they generate each token by conditioning on previously generated tokens. In contrast, non-autoregressive seq2seq models generate all tokens in one pass, which leads to increased efficiency through parallel processing on hardware such as GPUs. However, directly modeling the joint distribution of all tokens simultaneously is challenging, and even with increasingly complex model structures accuracy lags significantly behind autoregressive models. In this paper, we propose a simple, efficient, and effective model for non-autoregressive sequence generation using latent variable models. Specifically, we turn to generative flow, an elegant technique to model complex distributions using neural networks, and design several layers of flow tailored for modeling the conditional density of sequential latent variables. We evaluate this model on three neural machine translation (NMT) benchmark datasets, achieving comparable performance with state-of-the-art non-autoregressive NMT models and almost constant decoding time w.r.t the sequence length.

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On Evaluation of Adversarial Perturbations for Sequence-to-Sequence Models
Paul Michel | Xian Li | Graham Neubig | Juan Pino
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Adversarial examples — perturbations to the input of a model that elicit large changes in the output — have been shown to be an effective way of assessing the robustness of sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models. However, these perturbations only indicate weaknesses in the model if they do not change the input so significantly that it legitimately results in changes in the expected output. This fact has largely been ignored in the evaluations of the growing body of related literature. Using the example of untargeted attacks on machine translation (MT), we propose a new evaluation framework for adversarial attacks on seq2seq models that takes the semantic equivalence of the pre- and post-perturbation input into account. Using this framework, we demonstrate that existing methods may not preserve meaning in general, breaking the aforementioned assumption that source side perturbations should not result in changes in the expected output. We further use this framework to demonstrate that adding additional constraints on attacks allows for adversarial perturbations that are more meaning-preserving, but nonetheless largely change the output sequence. Finally, we show that performing untargeted adversarial training with meaning-preserving attacks is beneficial to the model in terms of adversarial robustness, without hurting test performance. A toolkit implementing our evaluation framework is released at https://github.com/pmichel31415/teapot-nlp.


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A Corpus for Multilingual Document Classification in Eight Languages
Holger Schwenk | Xian Li
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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CVTE at IJCNLP-2017 Task 1: Character Checking System for Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis Task
Xian Li | Peng Wang | Suixue Wang | Guanyu Jiang | Tianyuan You
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

Grammatical error diagnosis is an important task in natural language processing. This paper introduces CVTE Character Checking System in the NLP-TEA-4 shared task for CGED 2017, we use Bi-LSTM to generate the probability of every character, then take two kinds of strategies to decide whether a character is correct or not. This system is probably more suitable to deal with the error type of bad word selection, which is one of four types of errors, and the rest are words re-dundancy, words missing and words disorder. Finally the second strategy achieves better F1 score than the first one at all of detection level, identification level, position level.