Xiang Dai

Also published as: Xiangying Dai


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Exploring Instructive Prompts for Large Language Models in the Extraction of Evidence for Supporting Assigned Suicidal Risk Levels
Jiyu Chen | Vincent Nguyen | Xiang Dai | Diego Molla-Aliod | Cecile Paris | Sarvnaz Karimi
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology (CLPsych 2024)

Monitoring and predicting the expression of suicidal risk in individuals’ social media posts is a central focus in clinical NLP. Yet, existing approaches frequently lack a crucial explainability component necessary for extracting evidence related to an individual’s mental health state. We describe the CSIRO Data61 team’s evidence extraction system submitted to the CLPsych 2024 shared task. The task aims to investigate the zero-shot capabilities of open-source LLM in extracting evidence regarding an individual’s assigned suicide risk level from social media discourse. The results are assessed against ground truth evidence annotated by psychological experts, with an achieved recall-oriented BERTScore of 0.919. Our findings suggest that LLMs showcase strong feasibility in the extraction of information supporting the evaluation of suicidal risk in social media discourse. Opportunities for refinement exist, notably in crafting concise and effective instructions to guide the extraction process.


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MultiFin: A Dataset for Multilingual Financial NLP
Rasmus Jørgensen | Oliver Brandt | Mareike Hartmann | Xiang Dai | Christian Igel | Desmond Elliott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2023

Financial information is generated and distributed across the world, resulting in a vast amount of domain-specific multilingual data. Multilingual models adapted to the financial domain would ease deployment when an organization needs to work with multiple languages on a regular basis. For the development and evaluation of such models, there is a need for multilingual financial language processing datasets. We describe MultiFin – a publicly available financial dataset consisting of real-world article headlines covering 15 languages across different writing systems and language families. The dataset consists of hierarchical label structure providing two classification tasks: multi-label and multi-class. We develop our annotation schema based on a real-world application and annotate our dataset using both ‘label by native-speaker’ and ‘translate-then-label’ approaches. The evaluation of several popular multilingual models, e.g., mBERT, XLM-R, and mT5, show that although decent accuracy can be achieved in high-resource languages, there is substantial room for improvement in low-resource languages.

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Rethinking the Role of Entity Type in Relation Classification
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Stephen Wan
Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Can Social Media Inform Dietary Approaches for Health Management? A Dataset and Benchmark for Low-Carb Diet
Skyler Zou | Xiang Dai | Grant Brinkworth | Pennie Taylor | Sarvnaz Karimi
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

Social media offers an accessible avenue for individuals of diverse backgrounds and circumstances to share their unique perspectives and experiences. Our study focuses on the experience of low carbohydrate diets, motivated by recent research and clinical trials that elucidates the diet’s promising health benefits. Given the lack of any suitable annotated dataset in this domain, we first define an annotation schema that reflects the interests of healthcare professionals and then manually annotate data from the Reddit social network. Finally, we benchmark the effectiveness of several classification approaches that are based on statistical Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier, pre-train-then-finetune RoBERTa classifier, and, off-the-shelf ChatGPT API, on our annotated dataset. Our annotations and scripts that are used to download the Reddit posts are publicly available at https://data.csiro.au/collection/csiro:59208.

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CSIRO Data61 Team at BioLaySumm Task 1: Lay Summarisation of Biomedical Research Articles Using Generative Models
Mong Yuan Sim | Xiang Dai | Maciej Rybinski | Sarvnaz Karimi
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

Lay summarisation aims at generating a summary for non-expert audience which allows them to keep updated with latest research in a specific field. Despite the significant advancements made in the field of text summarisation, lay summarisation remains relatively under-explored. We present a comprehensive set of experiments and analysis to investigate the effectiveness of existing pre-trained language models in generating lay summaries. When evaluate our models using a BioNLP Shared Task, BioLaySumm, our submission ranked second for the relevance criteria and third overall among 21 competing teams.


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Detecting Entities in the Astrophysics Literature: A Comparison of Word-based and Span-based Entity Recognition Methods
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi
Proceedings of the first Workshop on Information Extraction from Scientific Publications

Information Extraction from scientific literature can be challenging due to the highly specialised nature of such text. We describe our entity recognition methods developed as part of the DEAL (Detecting Entities in the Astrophysics Literature) shared task. The aim of the task is to build a system that can identify Named Entities in a dataset composed by scholarly articles from astrophysics literature. We planned our participation such that it enables us to conduct an empirical comparison between word-based tagging and span-based classification methods. When evaluated on two hidden test sets provided by the organizer, our best-performing submission achieved F1 scores of 0.8307 (validation phase) and 0.7990 (testing phase).

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Revisiting Transformer-based Models for Long Document Classification
Xiang Dai | Ilias Chalkidis | Sune Darkner | Desmond Elliott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

The recent literature in text classification is biased towards short text sequences (e.g., sentences or paragraphs). In real-world applications, multi-page multi-paragraph documents are common and they cannot be efficiently encoded by vanilla Transformer-based models. We compare different Transformer-based Long Document Classification (TrLDC) approaches that aim to mitigate the computational overhead of vanilla transformers to encode much longer text, namely sparse attention and hierarchical encoding methods.We examine several aspects of sparse attention (e.g., size of local attention window, use of global attention) and hierarchical (e.g., document splitting strategy) transformers on four document classification datasets covering different domains. We observe a clear benefit from being able to process longer text, and, based on our results, we derive practical advice of applying Transformer-based models on long document classification tasks.


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mDAPT: Multilingual Domain Adaptive Pretraining in a Single Model
Rasmus Kær Jørgensen | Mareike Hartmann | Xiang Dai | Desmond Elliott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Domain adaptive pretraining, i.e. the continued unsupervised pretraining of a language model on domain-specific text, improves the modelling of text for downstream tasks within the domain. Numerous real-world applications are based on domain-specific text, e.g. working with financial or biomedical documents, and these applications often need to support multiple languages. However, large-scale domain-specific multilingual pretraining data for such scenarios can be difficult to obtain, due to regulations, legislation, or simply a lack of language- and domain-specific text. One solution is to train a single multilingual model, taking advantage of the data available in as many languages as possible. In this work, we explore the benefits of domain adaptive pretraining with a focus on adapting to multiple languages within a specific domain. We propose different techniques to compose pretraining corpora that enable a language model to both become domain-specific and multilingual. Evaluation on nine domain-specific datasets—for biomedical named entity recognition and financial sentence classification—covering seven different languages show that a single multilingual domain-specific model can outperform the general multilingual model, and performs close to its monolingual counterpart. This finding holds across two different pretraining methods, adapter-based pretraining and full model pretraining.


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Cost-effective Selection of Pretraining Data: A Case Study of Pretraining BERT on Social Media
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ben Hachey | Cecile Paris
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent studies on domain-specific BERT models show that effectiveness on downstream tasks can be improved when models are pretrained on in-domain data. Often, the pretraining data used in these models are selected based on their subject matter, e.g., biology or computer science. Given the range of applications using social media text, and its unique language variety, we pretrain two models on tweets and forum text respectively, and empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of these two resources. In addition, we investigate how similarity measures can be used to nominate in-domain pretraining data. We publicly release our pretrained models at https://bit.ly/35RpTf0.

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An Effective Transition-based Model for Discontinuous NER
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ben Hachey | Cecile Paris
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Unlike widely used Named Entity Recognition (NER) data sets in generic domains, biomedical NER data sets often contain mentions consisting of discontinuous spans. Conventional sequence tagging techniques encode Markov assumptions that are efficient but preclude recovery of these mentions. We propose a simple, effective transition-based model with generic neural encoding for discontinuous NER. Through extensive experiments on three biomedical data sets, we show that our model can effectively recognize discontinuous mentions without sacrificing the accuracy on continuous mentions.

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An Analysis of Simple Data Augmentation for Named Entity Recognition
Xiang Dai | Heike Adel
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Simple yet effective data augmentation techniques have been proposed for sentence-level and sentence-pair natural language processing tasks. Inspired by these efforts, we design and compare data augmentation for named entity recognition, which is usually modeled as a token-level sequence labeling problem. Through experiments on two data sets from the biomedical and materials science domains (i2b2-2010 and MaSciP), we show that simple augmentation can boost performance for both recurrent and transformer-based models, especially for small training sets.


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Using Similarity Measures to Select Pretraining Data for NER
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ben Hachey | Cecile Paris
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Word vectors and Language Models (LMs) pretrained on a large amount of unlabelled data can dramatically improve various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, the measure and impact of similarity between pretraining data and target task data are left to intuition. We propose three cost-effective measures to quantify different aspects of similarity between source pretraining and target task data. We demonstrate that these measures are good predictors of the usefulness of pretrained models for Named Entity Recognition (NER) over 30 data pairs. Results also suggest that pretrained LMs are more effective and more predictable than pretrained word vectors, but pretrained word vectors are better when pretraining data is dissimilar.

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NNE: A Dataset for Nested Named Entity Recognition in English Newswire
Nicky Ringland | Xiang Dai | Ben Hachey | Sarvnaz Karimi | Cecile Paris | James R. Curran
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Named entity recognition (NER) is widely used in natural language processing applications and downstream tasks. However, most NER tools target flat annotation from popular datasets, eschewing the semantic information available in nested entity mentions. We describe NNE—a fine-grained, nested named entity dataset over the full Wall Street Journal portion of the Penn Treebank (PTB). Our annotation comprises 279,795 mentions of 114 entity types with up to 6 layers of nesting. We hope the public release of this large dataset for English newswire will encourage development of new techniques for nested NER.


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Task-oriented Dialogue System for Automatic Diagnosis
Zhongyu Wei | Qianlong Liu | Baolin Peng | Huaixiao Tou | Ting Chen | Xuanjing Huang | Kam-fai Wong | Xiangying Dai
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

In this paper, we make a move to build a dialogue system for automatic diagnosis. We first build a dataset collected from an online medical forum by extracting symptoms from both patients’ self-reports and conversational data between patients and doctors. Then we propose a task-oriented dialogue system framework to make diagnosis for patients automatically, which can converse with patients to collect additional symptoms beyond their self-reports. Experimental results on our dataset show that additional symptoms extracted from conversation can greatly improve the accuracy for disease identification and our dialogue system is able to collect these symptoms automatically and make a better diagnosis.

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Recognizing Complex Entity Mentions: A Review and Future Directions
Xiang Dai
Proceedings of ACL 2018, Student Research Workshop

Standard named entity recognizers can effectively recognize entity mentions that consist of contiguous tokens and do not overlap with each other. However, in practice, there are many domains, such as the biomedical domain, in which there are nested, overlapping, and discontinuous entity mentions. These complex mentions cannot be directly recognized by conventional sequence tagging models because they may break the assumptions based on which sequence tagging techniques are built. We review the existing methods which are revised to tackle complex entity mentions and categorize them as tokenlevel and sentence-level approaches. We then identify the research gap, and discuss some directions that we are exploring.

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Shot Or Not: Comparison of NLP Approaches for Vaccination Behaviour Detection
Aditya Joshi | Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ross Sparks | Cécile Paris | C Raina MacIntyre
Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop SMM4H: The 3rd Social Media Mining for Health Applications Workshop & Shared Task

Vaccination behaviour detection deals with predicting whether or not a person received/was about to receive a vaccine. We present our submission for vaccination behaviour detection shared task at the SMM4H workshop. Our findings are based on three prevalent text classification approaches: rule-based, statistical and deep learning-based. Our final submissions are: (1) an ensemble of statistical classifiers with task-specific features derived using lexicons, language processing tools and word embeddings; and, (2) a LSTM classifier with pre-trained language models.


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Automatic Diagnosis Coding of Radiology Reports: A Comparison of Deep Learning and Conventional Classification Methods
Sarvnaz Karimi | Xiang Dai | Hamed Hassanzadeh | Anthony Nguyen
BioNLP 2017

Diagnosis autocoding services and research intend to both improve the productivity of clinical coders and the accuracy of the coding. It is an important step in data analysis for funding and reimbursement, as well as health services planning and resource allocation. We investigate the applicability of deep learning at autocoding of radiology reports using International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Deep learning methods are known to require large training data. Our goal is to explore how to use these methods when the training data is sparse, skewed and relatively small, and how their effectiveness compares to conventional methods. We identify optimal parameters that could be used in setting up a convolutional neural network for autocoding with comparable results to that of conventional methods.

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Medication and Adverse Event Extraction from Noisy Text
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Cecile Paris
Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2017


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Combine Person Name and Person Identity Recognition and Document Clustering for Chinese Person Name Disambiguation
Ruifeng Xu | Jun Xu | Xiangying Dai | Chunyu Kit
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing