Xiang Dai

Also published as: Xiangying Dai


pdf bib
mDAPT: Multilingual Domain Adaptive Pretraining in a Single Model
Rasmus Kær Jørgensen | Mareike Hartmann | Xiang Dai | Desmond Elliott
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Domain adaptive pretraining, i.e. the continued unsupervised pretraining of a language model on domain-specific text, improves the modelling of text for downstream tasks within the domain. Numerous real-world applications are based on domain-specific text, e.g. working with financial or biomedical documents, and these applications often need to support multiple languages. However, large-scale domain-specific multilingual pretraining data for such scenarios can be difficult to obtain, due to regulations, legislation, or simply a lack of language- and domain-specific text. One solution is to train a single multilingual model, taking advantage of the data available in as many languages as possible. In this work, we explore the benefits of domain adaptive pretraining with a focus on adapting to multiple languages within a specific domain. We propose different techniques to compose pretraining corpora that enable a language model to both become domain-specific and multilingual. Evaluation on nine domain-specific datasets—for biomedical named entity recognition and financial sentence classification—covering seven different languages show that a single multilingual domain-specific model can outperform the general multilingual model, and performs close to its monolingual counterpart. This finding holds across two different pretraining methods, adapter-based pretraining and full model pretraining.


pdf bib
An Effective Transition-based Model for Discontinuous NER
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ben Hachey | Cecile Paris
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Unlike widely used Named Entity Recognition (NER) data sets in generic domains, biomedical NER data sets often contain mentions consisting of discontinuous spans. Conventional sequence tagging techniques encode Markov assumptions that are efficient but preclude recovery of these mentions. We propose a simple, effective transition-based model with generic neural encoding for discontinuous NER. Through extensive experiments on three biomedical data sets, we show that our model can effectively recognize discontinuous mentions without sacrificing the accuracy on continuous mentions.

pdf bib
An Analysis of Simple Data Augmentation for Named Entity Recognition
Xiang Dai | Heike Adel
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Simple yet effective data augmentation techniques have been proposed for sentence-level and sentence-pair natural language processing tasks. Inspired by these efforts, we design and compare data augmentation for named entity recognition, which is usually modeled as a token-level sequence labeling problem. Through experiments on two data sets from the biomedical and materials science domains (i2b2-2010 and MaSciP), we show that simple augmentation can boost performance for both recurrent and transformer-based models, especially for small training sets.

pdf bib
Cost-effective Selection of Pretraining Data: A Case Study of Pretraining BERT on Social Media
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ben Hachey | Cecile Paris
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent studies on domain-specific BERT models show that effectiveness on downstream tasks can be improved when models are pretrained on in-domain data. Often, the pretraining data used in these models are selected based on their subject matter, e.g., biology or computer science. Given the range of applications using social media text, and its unique language variety, we pretrain two models on tweets and forum text respectively, and empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of these two resources. In addition, we investigate how similarity measures can be used to nominate in-domain pretraining data. We publicly release our pretrained models at https://bit.ly/35RpTf0.


pdf bib
NNE: A Dataset for Nested Named Entity Recognition in English Newswire
Nicky Ringland | Xiang Dai | Ben Hachey | Sarvnaz Karimi | Cecile Paris | James R. Curran
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Named entity recognition (NER) is widely used in natural language processing applications and downstream tasks. However, most NER tools target flat annotation from popular datasets, eschewing the semantic information available in nested entity mentions. We describe NNE—a fine-grained, nested named entity dataset over the full Wall Street Journal portion of the Penn Treebank (PTB). Our annotation comprises 279,795 mentions of 114 entity types with up to 6 layers of nesting. We hope the public release of this large dataset for English newswire will encourage development of new techniques for nested NER.

pdf bib
Using Similarity Measures to Select Pretraining Data for NER
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ben Hachey | Cecile Paris
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Word vectors and Language Models (LMs) pretrained on a large amount of unlabelled data can dramatically improve various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. However, the measure and impact of similarity between pretraining data and target task data are left to intuition. We propose three cost-effective measures to quantify different aspects of similarity between source pretraining and target task data. We demonstrate that these measures are good predictors of the usefulness of pretrained models for Named Entity Recognition (NER) over 30 data pairs. Results also suggest that pretrained LMs are more effective and more predictable than pretrained word vectors, but pretrained word vectors are better when pretraining data is dissimilar.


pdf bib
Task-oriented Dialogue System for Automatic Diagnosis
Zhongyu Wei | Qianlong Liu | Baolin Peng | Huaixiao Tou | Ting Chen | Xuanjing Huang | Kam-fai Wong | Xiangying Dai
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

In this paper, we make a move to build a dialogue system for automatic diagnosis. We first build a dataset collected from an online medical forum by extracting symptoms from both patients’ self-reports and conversational data between patients and doctors. Then we propose a task-oriented dialogue system framework to make diagnosis for patients automatically, which can converse with patients to collect additional symptoms beyond their self-reports. Experimental results on our dataset show that additional symptoms extracted from conversation can greatly improve the accuracy for disease identification and our dialogue system is able to collect these symptoms automatically and make a better diagnosis.

pdf bib
Recognizing Complex Entity Mentions: A Review and Future Directions
Xiang Dai
Proceedings of ACL 2018, Student Research Workshop

Standard named entity recognizers can effectively recognize entity mentions that consist of contiguous tokens and do not overlap with each other. However, in practice, there are many domains, such as the biomedical domain, in which there are nested, overlapping, and discontinuous entity mentions. These complex mentions cannot be directly recognized by conventional sequence tagging models because they may break the assumptions based on which sequence tagging techniques are built. We review the existing methods which are revised to tackle complex entity mentions and categorize them as tokenlevel and sentence-level approaches. We then identify the research gap, and discuss some directions that we are exploring.

pdf bib
Shot Or Not: Comparison of NLP Approaches for Vaccination Behaviour Detection
Aditya Joshi | Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Ross Sparks | Cécile Paris | C Raina MacIntyre
Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop SMM4H: The 3rd Social Media Mining for Health Applications Workshop & Shared Task

Vaccination behaviour detection deals with predicting whether or not a person received/was about to receive a vaccine. We present our submission for vaccination behaviour detection shared task at the SMM4H workshop. Our findings are based on three prevalent text classification approaches: rule-based, statistical and deep learning-based. Our final submissions are: (1) an ensemble of statistical classifiers with task-specific features derived using lexicons, language processing tools and word embeddings; and, (2) a LSTM classifier with pre-trained language models.


pdf bib
Medication and Adverse Event Extraction from Noisy Text
Xiang Dai | Sarvnaz Karimi | Cecile Paris
Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2017

pdf bib
Automatic Diagnosis Coding of Radiology Reports: A Comparison of Deep Learning and Conventional Classification Methods
Sarvnaz Karimi | Xiang Dai | Hamed Hassanzadeh | Anthony Nguyen
BioNLP 2017

Diagnosis autocoding services and research intend to both improve the productivity of clinical coders and the accuracy of the coding. It is an important step in data analysis for funding and reimbursement, as well as health services planning and resource allocation. We investigate the applicability of deep learning at autocoding of radiology reports using International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Deep learning methods are known to require large training data. Our goal is to explore how to use these methods when the training data is sparse, skewed and relatively small, and how their effectiveness compares to conventional methods. We identify optimal parameters that could be used in setting up a convolutional neural network for autocoding with comparable results to that of conventional methods.


pdf bib
Combine Person Name and Person Identity Recognition and Document Clustering for Chinese Person Name Disambiguation
Ruifeng Xu | Jun Xu | Xiangying Dai | Chunyu Kit
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing