Xianggen Liu


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Vector-Quantized Prompt Learning for Paraphrase Generation
Haotian Luo | Yixin Liu | Peidong Liu | Xianggen Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Deep generative modeling of natural languages has achieved many successes, such as producing fluent sentences and translating from one language into another. However, the development of generative modeling techniques for paraphrase generation still lags behind largely due to the challenges in addressing the complex conflicts between expression diversity and semantic preservation. This paper proposes to generate diverse and high-quality paraphrases by exploiting the pre-trained models with instance-dependent prompts. To learn generalizable prompts, we assume that the number of abstract transforming patterns of paraphrase generation (governed by prompts) is finite and usually not large. Therefore, we present vector-quantized prompts as the cues to control the generation of pre-trained models. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method achieves new state-of-art results on three benchmark datasets, including Quora, Wikianswers, and MSCOCO. We will release all the code upon acceptance.


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Unsupervised Paraphrasing by Simulated Annealing
Xianggen Liu | Lili Mou | Fandong Meng | Hao Zhou | Jie Zhou | Sen Song
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We propose UPSA, a novel approach that accomplishes Unsupervised Paraphrasing by Simulated Annealing. We model paraphrase generation as an optimization problem and propose a sophisticated objective function, involving semantic similarity, expression diversity, and language fluency of paraphrases. UPSA searches the sentence space towards this objective by performing a sequence of local editing. We evaluate our approach on various datasets, namely, Quora, Wikianswers, MSCOCO, and Twitter. Extensive results show that UPSA achieves the state-of-the-art performance compared with previous unsupervised methods in terms of both automatic and human evaluations. Further, our approach outperforms most existing domain-adapted supervised models, showing the generalizability of UPSA.


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Object-oriented Neural Programming (OONP) for Document Understanding
Zhengdong Lu | Xianggen Liu | Haotian Cui | Yukun Yan | Daqi Zheng
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose Object-oriented Neural Programming (OONP), a framework for semantically parsing documents in specific domains. Basically, OONP reads a document and parses it into a predesigned object-oriented data structure that reflects the domain-specific semantics of the document. An OONP parser models semantic parsing as a decision process: a neural net-based Reader sequentially goes through the document, and builds and updates an intermediate ontology during the process to summarize its partial understanding of the text. OONP supports a big variety of forms (both symbolic and differentiable) for representing the state and the document, and a rich family of operations to compose the representation. An OONP parser can be trained with supervision of different forms and strength, including supervised learning (SL), reinforcement learning (RL) and hybrid of the two. Our experiments on both synthetic and real-world document parsing tasks have shown that OONP can learn to handle fairly complicated ontology with training data of modest sizes.