Xiaodong Zhang


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Original Content Is All You Need! an Empirical Study on Leveraging Answer Summary for WikiHowQA Answer Selection Task
Liang Wen | Juan Li | Houfeng Wang | Yingwei Luo | Xiaolin Wang | Xiaodong Zhang | Zhicong Cheng | Dawei Yin
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Answer selection task requires finding appropriate answers to questions from informative but crowdsourced candidates. A key factor impeding its solution by current answer selection approaches is the redundancy and lengthiness issues of crowdsourced answers. Recently, Deng et al. (2020) constructed a new dataset, WikiHowQA, which contains a corresponding reference summary for each original lengthy answer. And their experiments show that leveraging the answer summaries helps to attend the essential information in original lengthy answers and improve the answer selection performance under certain circumstances. However, when given a question and a set of long candidate answers, human beings could effortlessly identify the correct answer without the aid of additional answer summaries since the original answers contain all the information volume that answer summaries contain. In addition, pretrained language models have been shown superior or comparable to human beings on many natural language processing tasks. Motivated by those, we design a series of neural models, either pretraining-based or non-pretraining-based, to check wether the additional answer summaries are helpful for ranking the relevancy degrees of question-answer pairs on WikiHowQA dataset. Extensive automated experiments and hand analysis show that the additional answer summaries are not useful for achieving the best performance.


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Text Level Graph Neural Network for Text Classification
Lianzhe Huang | Dehong Ma | Sujian Li | Xiaodong Zhang | Houfeng Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recently, researches have explored the graph neural network (GNN) techniques on text classification, since GNN does well in handling complex structures and preserving global information. However, previous methods based on GNN are mainly faced with the practical problems of fixed corpus level graph structure which don’t support online testing and high memory consumption. To tackle the problems, we propose a new GNN based model that builds graphs for each input text with global parameters sharing instead of a single graph for the whole corpus. This method removes the burden of dependence between an individual text and entire corpus which support online testing, but still preserve global information. Besides, we build graphs by much smaller windows in the text, which not only extract more local features but also significantly reduce the edge numbers as well as memory consumption. Experiments show that our model outperforms existing models on several text classification datasets even with consuming less memory.


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Unpaired Sentiment-to-Sentiment Translation: A Cycled Reinforcement Learning Approach
Jingjing Xu | Xu Sun | Qi Zeng | Xiaodong Zhang | Xuancheng Ren | Houfeng Wang | Wenjie Li
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The goal of sentiment-to-sentiment “translation” is to change the underlying sentiment of a sentence while keeping its content. The main challenge is the lack of parallel data. To solve this problem, we propose a cycled reinforcement learning method that enables training on unpaired data by collaboration between a neutralization module and an emotionalization module. We evaluate our approach on two review datasets, Yelp and Amazon. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art systems. Especially, the proposed method substantially improves the content preservation performance. The BLEU score is improved from 1.64 to 22.46 and from 0.56 to 14.06 on the two datasets, respectively.

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A Neural Question Answering Model Based on Semi-Structured Tables
Hao Wang | Xiaodong Zhang | Shuming Ma | Xu Sun | Houfeng Wang | Mengxiang Wang
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Most question answering (QA) systems are based on raw text and structured knowledge graph. However, raw text corpora are hard for QA system to understand, and structured knowledge graph needs intensive manual work, while it is relatively easy to obtain semi-structured tables from many sources directly, or build them automatically. In this paper, we build an end-to-end system to answer multiple choice questions with semi-structured tables as its knowledge. Our system answers queries by two steps. First, it finds the most similar tables. Then the system measures the relevance between each question and candidate table cells, and choose the most related cell as the source of answer. The system is evaluated with TabMCQ dataset, and gets a huge improvement compared to the state of the art.


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Cascading Multiway Attentions for Document-level Sentiment Classification
Dehong Ma | Sujian Li | Xiaodong Zhang | Houfeng Wang | Xu Sun
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level sentiment classification aims to assign the user reviews a sentiment polarity. Previous methods either just utilized the document content without consideration of user and product information, or did not comprehensively consider what roles the three kinds of information play in text modeling. In this paper, to reasonably use all the information, we present the idea that user, product and their combination can all influence the generation of attentions to words and sentences, when judging the sentiment of a document. With this idea, we propose a cascading multiway attention (CMA) model, where multiple ways of using user and product information are cascaded to influence the generation of attentions on the word and sentence layers. Then, sentences and documents are well modeled by multiple representation vectors, which provide rich information for sentiment classification. Experiments on IMDB and Yelp datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.


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Bidirectional Recurrent Convolutional Neural Network for Relation Classification
Rui Cai | Xiaodong Zhang | Houfeng Wang
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)