Relation classification is to determine the semantic relationship between two entities in a given sentence. However, many relation classifiers are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, which is using adversarial examples to lead victim models to output wrong results. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method for misleading relation classifiers. We first analyze the most important parts of speech (POSs) from the syntax and morphology perspectives, then we substitute words labeled with these POS tags in original samples with synonyms or hyponyms. Experimental results show that our method can generate adversarial texts of high quality, and most of the relationships between entities can be correctly identified in the process of human evaluation. Furthermore, the adversarial examples generated by our method possess promising transferability, and they are also helpful for improving the robustness of victim models.
The long-standing one-to-many issue of the open-domain dialogues poses significant challenges for automatic evaluation methods, i.e., there may be multiple suitable responses which differ in semantics for a given conversational context. To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel learning-based automatic evaluation metric (CMN), which can robustly evaluate open-domain dialogues by augmenting Conditional Variational Autoencoders (CVAEs) with a Next Sentence Prediction (NSP) objective and employing Mutual Information (MI) to model the semantic similarity of text in the latent space. Experimental results on two open-domain dialogue datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method compared with a wide range of baselines, especially in handling responses which are distant to the “golden” reference responses in semantics.
Pooling is an important technique for learning text representations in many neural NLP models. In conventional pooling methods such as average, max and attentive pooling, text representations are weighted summations of the L1 or L∞ norm of input features. However, their pooling norms are always fixed and may not be optimal for learning accurate text representations in different tasks. In addition, in many popular pooling methods such as max and attentive pooling some features may be over-emphasized, while other useful ones are not fully exploited. In this paper, we propose an Attentive Pooling with Learnable Norms (APLN) approach for text representation. Different from existing pooling methods that use a fixed pooling norm, we propose to learn the norm in an end-to-end manner to automatically find the optimal ones for text representation in different tasks. In addition, we propose two methods to ensure the numerical stability of the model training. The first one is scale limiting, which re-scales the input to ensure non-negativity and alleviate the risk of exponential explosion. The second one is re-formulation, which decomposes the exponent operation to avoid computing the real-valued powers of the input and further accelerate the pooling operation. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets show that our approach can effectively improve the performance of attentive pooling.