Existing approaches to mitigate demographic biases evaluate on monolingual data, however, multilingual data has not been examined. In this work, we treat the gender as domains (e.g., male vs. female) and present a standard domain adaptation model to reduce the gender bias and improve performance of text classifiers under multilingual settings. We evaluate our approach on two text classification tasks, hate speech detection and rating prediction, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with three fair-aware baselines.
Class imbalance naturally exists when label distributions are not aligned across source and target domains. However, existing state-of-the-art UDA models learn domain-invariant representations across domains and evaluate primarily on class-balanced data. In this work, we propose an unsupervised domain adaptation approach via reinforcement learning that jointly leverages feature variants and imbalanced labels across domains. We experiment with the text classification task for its easily accessible datasets and compare the proposed method with five baselines. Experiments on three datasets prove that our proposed method can effectively learn robust domain-invariant representations and successfully adapt text classifiers on imbalanced classes over domains.
Language varies across users and their interested fields in social media data: words authored by a user across his/her interests may have different meanings (e.g., cool) or sentiments (e.g., fast). However, most of the existing methods to train user embeddings ignore the variations across user interests, such as product and movie categories (e.g., drama vs. action). In this study, we treat the user interest as domains and empirically examine how the user language can vary across the user factor in three English social media datasets. We then propose a user embedding model to account for the language variability of user interests via a multitask learning framework. The model learns user language and its variations without human supervision. While existing work mainly evaluated the user embedding by extrinsic tasks, we propose an intrinsic evaluation via clustering and evaluate user embeddings by an extrinsic task, text classification. The experiments on the three English-language social media datasets show that our proposed approach can generally outperform baselines via adapting the user factor.
Existing research on fairness evaluation of document classification models mainly uses synthetic monolingual data without ground truth for author demographic attributes. In this work, we assemble and publish a multilingual Twitter corpus for the task of hate speech detection with inferred four author demographic factors: age, country, gender and race/ethnicity. The corpus covers five languages: English, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. We evaluate the inferred demographic labels with a crowdsourcing platform, Figure Eight. To examine factors that can cause biases, we take an empirical analysis of demographic predictability on the English corpus. We measure the performance of four popular document classifiers and evaluate the fairness and bias of the baseline classifiers on the author-level demographic attributes.
Language use varies across different demographic factors, such as gender, age, and geographic location. However, most existing document classification methods ignore demographic variability. In this study, we examine empirically how text data can vary across four demographic factors: gender, age, country, and region. We propose a multitask neural model to account for demographic variations via adversarial training. In experiments on four English-language social media datasets, we find that classification performance improves when adapting for user factors.
Language usage can change across periods of time, but document classifiers models are usually trained and tested on corpora spanning multiple years without considering temporal variations. This paper describes two complementary ways to adapt classifiers to shifts across time. First, we show that diachronic word embeddings, which were originally developed to study language change, can also improve document classification, and we show a simple method for constructing this type of embedding. Second, we propose a time-driven neural classification model inspired by methods for domain adaptation. Experiments on six corpora show how these methods can make classifiers more robust over time.
Building named entity recognition (NER) models for languages that do not have much training data is a challenging task. While recent work has shown promising results on cross-lingual transfer from high-resource languages, it is unclear what knowledge is transferred. In this paper, we first propose a simple and efficient neural architecture for cross-lingual NER. Experiments show that our model achieves competitive performance with the state-of-the-art. We further explore how transfer learning works for cross-lingual NER on two transferable factors: sequential order and multilingual embedding. Our results shed light on future research for improving cross-lingual NER.
Categorizing patient’s intentions in conversational assessment can help decision making in clinical treatments. Many conversation corpora span broaden a series of time stages. However, it is not clear that how the themes shift in the conversation impact on the performance of human intention categorization (eg., patients might show different behaviors during the beginning versus the end). This paper proposes a method that models the temporal factor by using domain adaptation on clinical dialogue corpora, Motivational Interviewing (MI). We deploy Bi-LSTM and topic model jointly to learn language usage change across different time sessions. We conduct experiments on the MI corpora to show the promising improvement after considering temporality in the classification task.
Many corpora span broad periods of time. Language processing models trained during one time period may not work well in future time periods, and the best model may depend on specific times of year (e.g., people might describe hotels differently in reviews during the winter versus the summer). This study investigates how document classifiers trained on documents from certain time intervals perform on documents from other time intervals, considering both seasonal intervals (intervals that repeat across years, e.g., winter) and non-seasonal intervals (e.g., specific years). We show experimentally that classification performance varies over time, and that performance can be improved by using a standard domain adaptation approach to adjust for changes in time.