Xiaoling Wang


2021

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paht_nlp @ MEDIQA 2021: Multi-grained Query Focused Multi-Answer Summarization
Wei Zhu | Yilong He | Ling Chai | Yunxiao Fan | Yuan Ni | Guotong Xie | Xiaoling Wang
Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

In this article, we describe our systems for the MEDIQA 2021 Shared Tasks. First, we will describe our method for the second task, Multi-Answer Summarization (MAS). For extractive summarization, two series of methods are applied. The first one follows (CITATION). First a RoBERTa model is first applied to give a local ranking of the candidate sentences. Then a Markov Chain model is applied to evaluate the sentences globally. The second method applies cross-sentence contextualization to improve the local ranking and discard the global ranking step. Our methods achieve the 1st Place in the MAS task. For the question summarization (QS) and radiology report summarization (RRS) tasks, we explore how end-to-end pre-trained seq2seq model perform. A series of tricks for improving the fine-tuning performances are validated.

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Discovering Better Model Architectures for Medical Query Understanding
Wei Zhu | Yuan Ni | Xiaoling Wang | Guotong Xie
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Papers

In developing an online question-answering system for the medical domains, natural language inference (NLI) models play a central role in question matching and intention detection. However, which models are best for our datasets? Manually selecting or tuning a model is time-consuming. Thus we experiment with automatically optimizing the model architectures on the task at hand via neural architecture search (NAS). First, we formulate a novel architecture search space based on the previous NAS literature, supporting cross-sentence attention (cross-attn) modeling. Second, we propose to modify the ENAS method to accelerate and stabilize the search results. We conduct extensive experiments on our two medical NLI tasks. Results show that our system can easily outperform the classical baseline models. We compare different NAS methods and demonstrate our approach provides the best results.

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GAML-BERT: Improving BERT Early Exiting by Gradient Aligned Mutual Learning
Wei Zhu | Xiaoling Wang | Yuan Ni | Guotong Xie
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this work, we propose a novel framework, Gradient Aligned Mutual Learning BERT (GAML-BERT), for improving the early exiting of BERT. GAML-BERT’s contributions are two-fold. We conduct a set of pilot experiments, which shows that mutual knowledge distillation between a shallow exit and a deep exit leads to better performances for both. From this observation, we use mutual learning to improve BERT’s early exiting performances, that is, we ask each exit of a multi-exit BERT to distill knowledge from each other. Second, we propose GA, a novel training method that aligns the gradients from knowledge distillation to cross-entropy losses. Extensive experiments are conducted on the GLUE benchmark, which shows that our GAML-BERT can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art (SOTA) BERT early exiting methods.

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Word Reordering for Zero-shot Cross-lingual Structured Prediction
Tao Ji | Yong Jiang | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Fei Huang | Yuanbin Wu | Xiaoling Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Adapting word order from one language to another is a key problem in cross-lingual structured prediction. Current sentence encoders (e.g., RNN, Transformer with position embeddings) are usually word order sensitive. Even with uniform word form representations (MUSE, mBERT), word order discrepancies may hurt the adaptation of models. In this paper, we build structured prediction models with bag-of-words inputs, and introduce a new reordering module to organizing words following the source language order, which learns task-specific reordering strategies from a general-purpose order predictor model. Experiments on zero-shot cross-lingual dependency parsing, POS tagging, and morphological tagging show that our model can significantly improve target language performances, especially for languages that are distant from the source language.

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A Unified Encoding of Structures in Transition Systems
Tao Ji | Yong Jiang | Tao Wang | Zhongqiang Huang | Fei Huang | Yuanbin Wu | Xiaoling Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transition systems usually contain various dynamic structures (e.g., stacks, buffers). An ideal transition-based model should encode these structures completely and efficiently. Previous works relying on templates or neural network structures either only encode partial structure information or suffer from computation efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel attention-based encoder unifying representation of all structures in a transition system. Specifically, we separate two views of items on structures, namely structure-invariant view and structure-dependent view. With the help of parallel-friendly attention network, we are able to encoding transition states with O(1) additional complexity (with respect to basic feature extractors). Experiments on the PTB and UD show that our proposed method significantly improves the test speed and achieves the best transition-based model, and is comparable to state-of-the-art methods.

2018

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Probabilistic Verb Selection for Data-to-Text Generation
Dell Zhang | Jiahao Yuan | Xiaoling Wang | Adam Foster
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

In data-to-text Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems, computers need to find the right words to describe phenomena seen in the data. This paper focuses on the problem of choosing appropriate verbs to express the direction and magnitude of a percentage change (e.g., in stock prices). Rather than simply using the same verbs again and again, we present a principled data-driven approach to this problem based on Shannon’s noisy-channel model so as to bring variation and naturalness into the generated text. Our experiments on three large-scale real-world news corpora demonstrate that the proposed probabilistic model can be learned to accurately imitate human authors’ pattern of usage around verbs, outperforming the state-of-the-art method significantly.