Multilingual pre-trained models are able to zero-shot transfer knowledge from rich-resource to low-resource languages in machine reading comprehension (MRC). However, inherent linguistic discrepancies in different languages could make answer spans predicted by zero-shot transfer violate syntactic constraints of the target language. In this paper, we propose a novel multilingual MRC framework equipped with a Siamese Semantic Disentanglement Model (S2DM) to disassociate semantics from syntax in representations learned by multilingual pre-trained models. To explicitly transfer only semantic knowledge to the target language, we propose two groups of losses tailored for semantic and syntactic encoding and disentanglement. Experimental results on three multilingual MRC datasets (i.e., XQuAD, MLQA, and TyDi QA) demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach over models based on mBERT and XLM-100.
Difficult samples of the minority class in imbalanced text classification are usually hard to be classified as they are embedded into an overlapping semantic region with the majority class. In this paper, we propose a Mutual Information constrained Semantically Oversampling framework (MISO) that can generate anchor instances to help the backbone network determine the re-embedding position of a non-overlapping representation for each difficult sample. MISO consists of (1) a semantic fusion module that learns entangled semantics among difficult and majority samples with an adaptive multi-head attention mechanism, (2) a mutual information loss that forces our model to learn new representations of entangled semantics in the non-overlapping region of the minority class, and (3) a coupled adversarial encoder-decoder that fine-tunes disentangled semantic representations to remain their correlations with the minority class, and then using these disentangled semantic representations to generate anchor instances for each difficult sample. Experiments on a variety of imbalanced text classification tasks demonstrate that anchor instances help classifiers achieve significant improvements over strong baselines.