Xiaoyang Wang


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Generating User-Engaging News Headlines
Pengshan Cai | Kaiqiang Song | Sangwoo Cho | Hongwei Wang | Xiaoyang Wang | Hong Yu | Fei Liu | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The potential choices for news article headlines are enormous, and finding the right balance between conveying the essential message and capturing the reader’s attention is key to effective headlining. However, presenting the same news headline to all readers is a suboptimal strategy, because it does not take into account the different preferences and interests of diverse readers, who may be confused about why a particular article has been recommended to them and do not see a clear connection between their interests and the recommended article. In this paper, we present a novel framework that addresses these challenges by incorporating user profiling to generate personalized headlines, and a combination of automated and human evaluation methods to determine user preference for personalized headlines. Our framework utilizes a learnable relevance function to assign personalized signature phrases to users based on their reading histories, which are then used to personalize headline generation. Through extensive evaluation, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework in generating personalized headlines that meet the needs of a diverse audience. Our framework has the potential to improve the efficacy of news recommendations and facilitate creation of personalized content.

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OASum: Large-Scale Open Domain Aspect-based Summarization
Xianjun Yang | Kaiqiang Song | Sangwoo Cho | Xiaoyang Wang | Xiaoman Pan | Linda Petzold | Dong Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Aspect or query-based summarization has recently caught more attention, as it can generate differentiated summaries based on users’ interests. However, the current dataset for aspect or query-based summarization either focuses on specific domains, on a relatively small scale, or contains only a few aspect types. Such limitations hinder further explorations in this direction. In this work, we take advantage of crowd-sourcing knowledge on Wikipedia and automatically create a high-quality, large-scale open-domain aspect-based summarization dataset named OASum, which contains more than 3.7 million instances with around 1 million different aspects on 2 million Wikipedia pages. We provide benchmark results on OASum and demonstrate its ability for diverse aspect-based summarization generation. To overcome the data scarcity problem on specific domains, we also perform zero-shot, few-shot, and fine-tuning on seven downstream datasets. Specifically, zero/few-shot and fine-tuning results show that the model pre-trained on our corpus demonstrates a strong aspect or query-focused generation ability compared with the backbone model. Our dataset and pre-trained checkpoints are publicly available.

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Unsupervised Multi-document Summarization with Holistic Inference
Haopeng Zhang | Sangwoo Cho | Kaiqiang Song | Xiaoyang Wang | Hongwei Wang | Jiawei Zhang | Dong Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: IJCNLP-AACL 2023 (Findings)

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DecipherPref: Analyzing Influential Factors in Human Preference Judgments via GPT-4
Yebowen Hu | Kaiqiang Song | Sangwoo Cho | Xiaoyang Wang | Hassan Foroosh | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Human preference judgments are pivotal in guiding large language models (LLMs) to produce outputs that align with human values. Human evaluations are also used in summarization tasks to compare outputs from various systems, complementing existing automatic metrics. Despite their significance, however, there has been limited research probing these pairwise or k-wise comparisons. The collective impact and relative importance of factors such as output length, informativeness, fluency, and factual consistency are still not well understood. It is also unclear if there are other hidden factors influencing human judgments. In this paper, we conduct an in-depth examination of a collection of pairwise human judgments released by OpenAI. Utilizing the Bradley-Terry-Luce (BTL) model, we reveal the inherent preferences embedded in these human judgments. We find that the most favored factors vary across tasks and genres, whereas the least favored factors tend to be consistent, e.g., outputs are too brief, contain excessive off-focus content or hallucinated facts. Our findings have implications on the construction of balanced datasets in human preference evaluations, which is a crucial step in shaping the behaviors of future LLMs.

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More Than Spoken Words: Nonverbal Message Extraction and Generation
Dian Yu | Xiaoyang Wang | Wanshun Chen | Nan Du | Longyue Wang | Haitao Mi | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Nonverbal messages (NM) such as speakers’ facial expressions and speed of speech are essential for face-to-face communication, and they can be regarded as implicit knowledge as they are usually not included in existing dialogue understanding or generation tasks. This paper introduces the task of extracting NMs in written text and generating NMs for spoken text. Previous studies merely focus on extracting NMs from relatively small-scale well-structured corpora such as movie scripts wherein NMs are enclosed in parentheses by scriptwriters, which greatly decreases the difficulty of extraction. To enable extracting NMs from unstructured corpora, we annotate the first NM extraction dataset for Chinese based on novels and develop three baselines to extract single-span or multi-span NM of a target utterance from its surrounding context. Furthermore, we use the extractors to extract 749K (context, utterance, NM) triples from Chinese novels and investigate whether we can use them to improve NM generation via semi-supervised learning. Experimental results demonstrate that the automatically extracted triples can serve as high-quality augmentation data of clean triples extracted from scripts to generate more relevant, fluent, valid, and factually consistent NMs than the purely supervised generator, and the resulting generator can in turn help Chinese dialogue understanding tasks such as dialogue machine reading comprehension and emotion classification by simply adding the predicted “unspoken” NM to each utterance or narrative in inputs.


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Towards Abstractive Grounded Summarization of Podcast Transcripts
Kaiqiang Song | Chen Li | Xiaoyang Wang | Dong Yu | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Podcasts have shown a recent rise in popularity. Summarization of podcasts is of practical benefit to both content providers and consumers. It helps people quickly decide whether they will listen to a podcast and/or reduces the cognitive load of content providers to write summaries. Nevertheless, podcast summarization faces significant challenges including factual inconsistencies of summaries with respect to the inputs. The problem is exacerbated by speech disfluencies and recognition errors in transcripts of spoken language. In this paper, we explore a novel abstractive summarization method to alleviate these issues. Our approach learns to produce an abstractive summary while grounding summary segments in specific regions of the transcript to allow for full inspection of summary details. We conduct a series of analyses of the proposed approach on a large podcast dataset and show that the approach can achieve promising results. Grounded summaries bring clear benefits in locating the summary and transcript segments that contain inconsistent information, and hence improve summarization quality in terms of automatic and human evaluation.

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Toward Unifying Text Segmentation and Long Document Summarization
Sangwoo Cho | Kaiqiang Song | Xiaoyang Wang | Fei Liu | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Text segmentation is important for signaling a document’s structure. Without segmenting a long document into topically coherent sections, it is difficult for readers to comprehend the text, let alone find important information. The problem is only exacerbated by a lack of segmentation in transcripts of audio/video recordings. In this paper, we explore the role that section segmentation plays in extractive summarization of written and spoken documents. Our approach learns robust sentence representations by performing summarization and segmentation simultaneously, which is further enhanced by an optimization-based regularizer to promote selection of diverse summary sentences. We conduct experiments on multiple datasets ranging from scientific articles to spoken transcripts to evaluate the model’s performance. Our findings suggest that the model can not only achieve state-of-the-art performance on publicly available benchmarks, but demonstrate better cross-genre transferability when equipped with text segmentation. We perform a series of analyses to quantify the impact of section segmentation on summarizing written and spoken documents of substantial length and complexity.

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Z-LaVI: Zero-Shot Language Solver Fueled by Visual Imagination
Yue Yang | Wenlin Yao | Hongming Zhang | Xiaoyang Wang | Dong Yu | Jianshu Chen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large-scale pretrained language models have made significant advances in solving downstream language understanding tasks. However, they generally suffer from reporting bias, the phenomenon describing the lack of explicit commonsense knowledge in written text, e.g., ”an orange is orange”. To overcome this limitation, we develop a novel approach, Z-LaVI, to endow language models with visual imagination capabilities. Specifically, we leverage two complementary types of ”imaginations”: (i) recalling existing images through retrieval and (ii) synthesizing nonexistent images via text-to-image generation. Jointly exploiting the language inputs and the imagination, a pretrained vision-language model (e.g., CLIP) eventually composes a zero-shot solution to the original language tasks. Notably, fueling language models with imagination can effectively leverage visual knowledge to solve plain language tasks. In consequence, Z-LaVI consistently improves the zero-shot performance of existing language models across a diverse set of language tasks.

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Salience Allocation as Guidance for Abstractive Summarization
Fei Wang | Kaiqiang Song | Hongming Zhang | Lifeng Jin | Sangwoo Cho | Wenlin Yao | Xiaoyang Wang | Muhao Chen | Dong Yu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Abstractive summarization models typically learn to capture the salient information from scratch implicitly. Recent literature adds extractive summaries as guidance for abstractive summarization models to provide hints of salient content and achieves better performance. However, extractive summaries as guidance could be over strict, leading to information loss or noisy signals. Furthermore, it cannot easily adapt to documents with various abstractiveness. As the number and allocation of salience content pieces varies, it is hard to find a fixed threshold deciding which content should be included in the guidance. In this paper, we propose a novel summarization approach with a flexible and reliable salience guidance, namely SEASON (SaliencE Allocation as Guidance for Abstractive SummarizatiON).SEASON utilizes the allocation of salience expectation to guide abstractive summarization and adapts well to articles in different abstractiveness. Automatic and human evaluations on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed method is effective and reliable. Empirical results on more than one million news articles demonstrate a natural fifteen-fifty salience split for news article sentences, providing a useful insight for composing news articles.


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Towards Faithful Neural Table-to-Text Generation with Content-Matching Constraints
Zhenyi Wang | Xiaoyang Wang | Bang An | Dong Yu | Changyou Chen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Text generation from a knowledge base aims to translate knowledge triples to natural language descriptions. Most existing methods ignore the faithfulness between a generated text description and the original table, leading to generated information that goes beyond the content of the table. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a novel Transformer-based generation framework to achieve the goal. The core techniques in our method to enforce faithfulness include a new table-text optimal-transport matching loss and a table-text embedding similarity loss based on the Transformer model. Furthermore, to evaluate faithfulness, we propose a new automatic metric specialized to the table-to-text generation problem. We also provide detailed analysis on each component of our model in our experiments. Automatic and human evaluations show that our framework can significantly outperform state-of-the-art by a large margin.