Xiaoyu Yang


2021

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Exploring Decomposition for Table-based Fact Verification
Xiaoyu Yang | Xiaodan Zhu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Fact verification based on structured data is challenging as it requires models to understand both natural language and symbolic operations performed over tables. Although pre-trained language models have demonstrated a strong capability in verifying simple statements, they struggle with complex statements that involve multiple operations. In this paper, we improve fact verification by decomposing complex statements into simpler subproblems. Leveraging the programs synthesized by a weakly supervised semantic parser, we propose a program-guided approach to constructing a pseudo dataset for decomposition model training. The subproblems, together with their predicted answers, serve as the intermediate evidence to enhance our fact verification model. Experiments show that our proposed approach achieves the new state-of-the-art performance, an 82.7% accuracy, on the TabFact benchmark.

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SemEval-2021 Task 4: Reading Comprehension of Abstract Meaning
Boyuan Zheng | Xiaoyu Yang | Yu-Ping Ruan | Zhenhua Ling | Quan Liu | Si Wei | Xiaodan Zhu
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

This paper introduces the SemEval-2021 shared task 4: Reading Comprehension of Abstract Meaning (ReCAM). This shared task is designed to help evaluate the ability of machines in representing and understanding abstract concepts.Given a passage and the corresponding question, a participating system is expected to choose the correct answer from five candidates of abstract concepts in cloze-style machine reading comprehension tasks. Based on two typical definitions of abstractness, i.e., the imperceptibility and nonspecificity, our task provides three subtasks to evaluate models’ ability in comprehending the two types of abstract meaning and the models’ generalizability. Specifically, Subtask 1 aims to evaluate how well a participating system models concepts that cannot be directly perceived in the physical world. Subtask 2 focuses on models’ ability in comprehending nonspecific concepts located high in a hypernym hierarchy given the context of a passage. Subtask 3 aims to provide some insights into models’ generalizability over the two types of abstractness. During the SemEval-2021 official evaluation period, we received 23 submissions to Subtask 1 and 28 to Subtask 2. The participating teams additionally made 29 submissions to Subtask 3. The leaderboard and competition website can be found at https://competitions.codalab.org/competitions/26153. The data and baseline code are available at https://github.com/boyuanzheng010/SemEval2021-Reading-Comprehension-of-Abstract-Meaning.

2020

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SemEval-2020 Task 5: Counterfactual Recognition
Xiaoyu Yang | Stephen Obadinma | Huasha Zhao | Qiong Zhang | Stan Matwin | Xiaodan Zhu
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We present a counterfactual recognition (CR) task, the shared Task 5 of SemEval-2020. Counterfactuals describe potential outcomes (consequents) produced by actions or circumstances that did not happen or cannot happen and are counter to the facts (antecedent). Counterfactual thinking is an important characteristic of the human cognitive system; it connects antecedents and consequent with causal relations. Our task provides a benchmark for counterfactual recognition in natural language with two subtasks. Subtask-1 aims to determine whether a given sentence is a counterfactual statement or not. Subtask-2 requires the participating systems to extract the antecedent and consequent in a given counterfactual statement. During the SemEval-2020 official evaluation period, we received 27 submissions to Subtask-1 and 11 to Subtask-2. Our data and baseline code are made publicly available at https://zenodo.org/record/3932442. The task website and leaderboard can be found at https://competitions.codalab.org/competitions/21691.

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Program Enhanced Fact Verification with Verbalization and Graph Attention Network
Xiaoyu Yang | Feng Nie | Yufei Feng | Quan Liu | Zhigang Chen | Xiaodan Zhu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Performing fact verification based on structured data is important for many real-life applications and is a challenging research problem, particularly when it involves both symbolic operations and informal inference based on language understanding. In this paper, we present a Program-enhanced Verbalization and Graph Attention Network (ProgVGAT) to integrate programs and execution into textual inference models. Specifically, a verbalization with program execution model is proposed to accumulate evidences that are embedded in operations over the tables. Built on that, we construct the graph attention verification networks, which are designed to fuse different sources of evidences from verbalized program execution, program structures, and the original statements and tables, to make the final verification decision. To support the above framework, we propose a program selection module optimized with a new training strategy based on margin loss, to produce more accurate programs, which is shown to be effective in enhancing the final verification results. Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves the new state-of-the-art performance, a 74.4% accuracy, on the benchmark dataset TABFACT.