Xin Wang


2022

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Compilable Neural Code Generation with Compiler Feedback
Xin Wang | Yasheng Wang | Yao Wan | Fei Mi | Yitong Li | Pingyi Zhou | Jin Liu | Hao Wu | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Automatically generating compilable programs with (or without) natural language descriptions has always been a touchstone problem for computational linguistics and automated software engineering. Existing deep-learning approaches model code generation as text generation, either constrained by grammar structures in decoder, or driven by pre-trained language models on large-scale code corpus (e.g., CodeGPT, PLBART, and CodeT5). However, few of them account for compilability of the generated programs. To improve compilability of the generated programs, this paper proposes COMPCODER, a three-stage pipeline utilizing compiler feedback for compilable code generation, including language model fine-tuning, compilability reinforcement, and compilability discrimination. Comprehensive experiments on two code generation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, improving the success rate of compilation from 44.18 to 89.18 in code completion on average and from 70.3 to 96.2 in text-to-code generation, respectively, when comparing with the state-of-the-art CodeGPT.

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Assessing Multilingual Fairness in Pre-trained Multimodal Representations
Jialu Wang | Yang Liu | Xin Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Recently pre-trained multimodal models, such as CLIP, have shown exceptional capabilities towards connecting images and natural language. The textual representations in English can be desirably transferred to multilingualism and support downstream multimodal tasks for different languages. Nevertheless, the principle of multilingual fairness is rarely scrutinized: do multilingual multimodal models treat languages equally? Are their performances biased towards particular languages? To answer these questions, we view language as the fairness recipient and introduce two new fairness notions, multilingual individual fairness and multilingual group fairness, for pre-trained multimodal models. Multilingual individual fairness requires that text snippets expressing similar semantics in different languages connect similarly to images, while multilingual group fairness requires equalized predictive performance across languages. We characterize the extent to which pre-trained multilingual vision-and-language representations are individually fair across languages. However, extensive experiments demonstrate that multilingual representations do not satisfy group fairness: (1) there is a severe multilingual accuracy disparity issue; (2) the errors exhibit biases across languages conditioning the group of people in the images, including race, gender and age.

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Interpretable Research Replication Prediction via Variational Contextual Consistency Sentence Masking
Tianyi Luo | Rui Meng | Xin Wang | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Research Replication Prediction (RRP) is the task of predicting whether a published research result can be replicated or not. Building an interpretable neural text classifier for RRP promotes the understanding of why a research paper is predicted as replicable or non-replicable and therefore makes its real-world application more reliable and trustworthy. However, the prior works on model interpretation mainly focused on improving the model interpretability at the word/phrase level, which are insufficient especially for long research papers in RRP. Furthermore, the existing methods cannot utilize a large size of unlabeled dataset to further improve the model interpretability. To address these limitations, we aim to build an interpretable neural model which can provide sentence-level explanations and apply weakly supervised approach to further leverage the large corpus of unlabeled datasets to boost the interpretability in addition to improving prediction performance as existing works have done. In this work, we propose the Variational Contextual Consistency Sentence Masking (VCCSM) method to automatically extract key sentences based on the context in the classifier, using both labeled and unlabeled datasets. Results of our experiments on RRP along with European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) datasets demonstrate that VCCSM is able to improve the model interpretability for the long document classification tasks using the area over the perturbation curve and post-hoc accuracy as evaluation metrics.

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CODE-MVP: Learning to Represent Source Code from Multiple Views with Contrastive Pre-Training
Xin Wang | Yasheng Wang | Yao Wan | Jiawei Wang | Pingyi Zhou | Li Li | Hao Wu | Jin Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Recent years have witnessed increasing interest in code representation learning, which aims to represent the semantics of source code into distributed vectors. Currently, various works have been proposed to represent the complex semantics of source code from different views, including plain text, Abstract Syntax Tree (AST), and several kinds of code graphs (e.g., Control/Data Flow Graph). However, most of them only consider a single view of source code independently, ignoring the correspondences among different views. In this paper, we propose to integrate different views with the natural-language description of source code into a unified framework with Multi-View contrastive Pre-training, and name our model as CODE-MVP. Specifically, we first extract multiple code views using compiler tools, and learn the complementary information among them under a contrastive learning framework. Inspired by the type checking in compilation, we also design a fine-grained type inference objective in the pre-training. Experiments on three downstream tasks over five datasets demonstrate the superiority of CODE-MVP when compared with several state-of-the-art baselines. For example, we achieve 2.4/2.3/1.1 gain in terms of MRR/MAP/Accuracy metrics on natural language code retrieval, code similarity, and code defect detection tasks, respectively.

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Dependency Position Encoding for Relation Extraction
Qiushi Guo | Xin Wang | Dehong Gao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Leveraging the dependency tree of the input sentence is able to improve the model performance for relation extraction. A challenging issue is how to remove confusions from the tree. Efforts have been made to utilize the dependency connections between words to selectively emphasize target-relevant information. However, these approaches are limited in focusing on exploiting dependency types. In this paper, we propose dependency position encoding (DPE), an efficient way of incorporating both dependency connections and dependency types into the self-attention mechanism to distinguish the importance of different word dependencies for the task. In contrast to previous studies that process input sentence and dependency information in separate streams, DPE can be seamlessly incorporated into the Transformer and makes it possible to use an one-stream scheme to extract relations between entity pairs. Extensive experiments show that models with our DPE significantly outperform the previous methods on SemEval 2010 Task 8, KBP37, and TACRED.

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Pan More Gold from the Sand: Refining Open-domain Dialogue Training with Noisy Self-Retrieval Generation
Yihe Wang | Yitong Li | Yasheng Wang | Fei Mi | Pingyi Zhou | Xin Wang | Jin Liu | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Real human conversation data are complicated, heterogeneous, and noisy, from which building open-domain dialogue systems remains a challenging task. In fact, such dialogue data still contains a wealth of information and knowledge, however, they are not fully explored. In this paper, we show existing open-domain dialogue generation methods that memorize context-response paired data with autoregressive or encode-decode language models underutilize the training data. Different from current approaches, using external knowledge, we explore a retrieval-generation training framework that can take advantage of the heterogeneous and noisy training data by considering them as “evidence”. In particular, we use BERTScore for retrieval, which gives better qualities of the evidence and generation. Experiments over publicly available datasets demonstrate that our method can help models generate better responses, even such training data are usually impressed as low-quality data. Such performance gain is comparable with those improved by enlarging the training set, even better. We also found that the model performance has a positive correlation with the relevance of the retrieved evidence. Moreover, our method performed well on zero-shot experiments, which indicates that our method can be more robust to real-world data.

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Imagination-Augmented Natural Language Understanding
Yujie Lu | Wanrong Zhu | Xin Wang | Miguel Eckstein | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Human brains integrate linguistic and perceptual information simultaneously to understand natural language, and hold the critical ability to render imaginations. Such abilities enable us to construct new abstract concepts or concrete objects, and are essential in involving practical knowledge to solve problems in low-resource scenarios. However, most existing methods for Natural Language Understanding (NLU) are mainly focused on textual signals. They do not simulate human visual imagination ability, which hinders models from inferring and learning efficiently from limited data samples. Therefore, we introduce an Imagination-Augmented Cross-modal Encoder (iACE) to solve natural language understanding tasks from a novel learning perspective—imagination-augmented cross-modal understanding. iACE enables visual imagination with external knowledge transferred from the powerful generative and pre-trained vision-and-language models. Extensive experiments on GLUE and SWAG show that iACE achieves consistent improvement over visually-supervised pre-trained models. More importantly, results in extreme and normal few-shot settings validate the effectiveness of iACE in low-resource natural language understanding circumstances.

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Diagnosing Vision-and-Language Navigation: What Really Matters
Wanrong Zhu | Yuankai Qi | Pradyumna Narayana | Kazoo Sone | Sugato Basu | Xin Wang | Qi Wu | Miguel Eckstein | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Vision-and-language navigation (VLN) is a multimodal task where an agent follows natural language instructions and navigates in visual environments. Multiple setups have been proposed, and researchers apply new model architectures or training techniques to boost navigation performance. However, there still exist non-negligible gaps between machines’ performance and human benchmarks. Moreover, the agents’ inner mechanisms for navigation decisions remain unclear. To the best of our knowledge, how the agents perceive the multimodal input is under-studied and needs investigation. In this work, we conduct a series of diagnostic experiments to unveil agents’ focus during navigation. Results show that indoor navigation agents refer to both object and direction tokens when making decisions. In contrast, outdoor navigation agents heavily rely on direction tokens and poorly understand the object tokens. Transformer-based agents acquire a better cross-modal understanding of objects and display strong numerical reasoning ability than non-Transformer-based agents. When it comes to vision-and-language alignments, many models claim that they can align object tokens with specific visual targets. We find unbalanced attention on the vision and text input and doubt the reliability of such cross-modal alignments.

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Towards Unified Representations of Knowledge Graph and Expert Rules for Machine Learning and Reasoning
Zhepei Wei | Yue Wang | Jinnan Li | Zhining Liu | Erxin Yu | Yuan Tian | Xin Wang | Yi Chang
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

With a knowledge graph and a set of if-then rules, can we reason about the conclusions given a set of observations? In this work, we formalize this question as the cognitive inference problem, and introduce the Cognitive Knowledge Graph (CogKG) that unifies two representations of heterogeneous symbolic knowledge: expert rules and relational facts. We propose a general framework in which the unified knowledge representations can perform both learning and reasoning. Specifically, we implement the above framework in two settings, depending on the availability of labeled data. When no labeled data are available for training, the framework can directly utilize symbolic knowledge as the decision basis and perform reasoning. When labeled data become available, the framework casts symbolic knowledge as a trainable neural architecture and optimizes the connection weights among neurons through gradient descent. Empirical study on two clinical diagnosis benchmarks demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method over time-tested knowledge-driven and data-driven methods, showing the great potential of the proposed method in unifying heterogeneous symbolic knowledge, i.e., expert rules and relational facts, as the substrate of machine learning and reasoning models.

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OIE@OIA: an Adaptable and Efficient Open Information Extraction Framework
Xin Wang | Minlong Peng | Mingming Sun | Ping Li
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Different Open Information Extraction (OIE) tasks require different types of information, so the OIE field requires strong adaptability of OIE algorithms to meet different task requirements. This paper discusses the adaptability problem in existing OIE systems and designs a new adaptable and efficient OIE system - OIE@OIA as a solution. OIE@OIA follows the methodology of Open Information eXpression (OIX): parsing a sentence to an Open Information Annotation (OIA) Graph and then adapting the OIA graph to different OIE tasks with simple rules. As the core of our OIE@OIA system, we implement an end-to-end OIA generator by annotating a dataset (we make it open available) and designing an efficient learning algorithm for the complex OIA graph. We easily adapt the OIE@OIA system to accomplish three popular OIE tasks. The experimental show that our OIE@OIA achieves new SOTA performances on these tasks, showing the great adaptability of our OIE@OIA system. Furthermore, compared to other end-to-end OIE baselines that need millions of samples for training, our OIE@OIA needs much fewer training samples (12K), showing a significant advantage in terms of efficiency.

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Vision-and-Language Navigation: A Survey of Tasks, Methods, and Future Directions
Jing Gu | Eliana Stefani | Qi Wu | Jesse Thomason | Xin Wang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A long-term goal of AI research is to build intelligent agents that can communicate with humans in natural language, perceive the environment, and perform real-world tasks. Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) is a fundamental and interdisciplinary research topic towards this goal, and receives increasing attention from natural language processing, computer vision, robotics, and machine learning communities. In this paper, we review contemporary studies in the emerging field of VLN, covering tasks, evaluation metrics, methods, etc. Through structured analysis of current progress and challenges, we also highlight the limitations of current VLN and opportunities for future work. This paper serves as a thorough reference for the VLN research community.

2021

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Are Gender-Neutral Queries Really Gender-Neutral? Mitigating Gender Bias in Image Search
Jialu Wang | Yang Liu | Xin Wang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Internet search affects people’s cognition of the world, so mitigating biases in search results and learning fair models is imperative for social good. We study a unique gender bias in image search in this work: the search images are often gender-imbalanced for gender-neutral natural language queries. We diagnose two typical image search models, the specialized model trained on in-domain datasets and the generalized representation model pre-trained on massive image and text data across the internet. Both models suffer from severe gender bias. Therefore, we introduce two novel debiasing approaches: an in-processing fair sampling method to address the gender imbalance issue for training models, and a post-processing feature clipping method base on mutual information to debias multimodal representations of pre-trained models. Extensive experiments on MS-COCO and Flickr30K benchmarks show that our methods significantly reduce the gender bias in image search models.

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A Multi-Level Attention Model for Evidence-Based Fact Checking
Canasai Kruengkrai | Junichi Yamagishi | Xin Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Multimodal Text Style Transfer for Outdoor Vision-and-Language Navigation
Wanrong Zhu | Xin Wang | Tsu-Jui Fu | An Yan | Pradyumna Narayana | Kazoo Sone | Sugato Basu | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

One of the most challenging topics in Natural Language Processing (NLP) is visually-grounded language understanding and reasoning. Outdoor vision-and-language navigation (VLN) is such a task where an agent follows natural language instructions and navigates in real-life urban environments. With the lack of human-annotated instructions that illustrate the intricate urban scenes, outdoor VLN remains a challenging task to solve. In this paper, we introduce a Multimodal Text Style Transfer (MTST) learning approach and leverage external multimodal resources to mitigate data scarcity in outdoor navigation tasks. We first enrich the navigation data by transferring the style of the instructions generated by Google Maps API, then pre-train the navigator with the augmented external outdoor navigation dataset. Experimental results show that our MTST learning approach is model-agnostic, and our MTST approach significantly outperforms the baseline models on the outdoor VLN task, improving task completion rate by 8.7% relatively on the test set.

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L2C: Describing Visual Differences Needs Semantic Understanding of Individuals
An Yan | Xin Wang | Tsu-Jui Fu | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Recent advances in language and vision push forward the research of captioning a single image to describing visual differences between image pairs. Suppose there are two images, I_1 and I_2, and the task is to generate a description W_1,2 comparing them, existing methods directly model I_1, I_2 -> W_1,2 mapping without the semantic understanding of individuals. In this paper, we introduce a Learning-to-Compare (L2C) model, which learns to understand the semantic structures of these two images and compare them while learning to describe each one. We demonstrate that L2C benefits from a comparison between explicit semantic representations and single-image captions, and generalizes better on the new testing image pairs. It outperforms the baseline on both automatic evaluation and human evaluation for the Birds-to-Words dataset.

2020

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Sentence Matching with Syntax- and Semantics-Aware BERT
Tao Liu | Xin Wang | Chengguo Lv | Ranran Zhen | Guohong Fu
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sentence matching aims to identify the special relationship between two sentences, and plays a key role in many natural language processing tasks. However, previous studies mainly focused on exploiting either syntactic or semantic information for sentence matching, and no studies consider integrating both of them. In this study, we propose integrating syntax and semantics into BERT with sentence matching. In particular, we use an implicit syntax and semantics integration method that is less sensitive to the output structure information. Thus the implicit integration can alleviate the error propagation problem. The experimental results show that our approach has achieved state-of-the-art or competitive performance on several sentence matching datasets, demonstrating the benefits of implicitly integrating syntactic and semantic features in sentence matching.

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Learning to Stop: A Simple yet Effective Approach to Urban Vision-Language Navigation
Jiannan Xiang | Xin Wang | William Yang Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Vision-and-Language Navigation (VLN) is a natural language grounding task where an agent learns to follow language instructions and navigate to specified destinations in real-world environments. A key challenge is to recognize and stop at the correct location, especially for complicated outdoor environments. Existing methods treat the STOP action equally as other actions, which results in undesirable behaviors that the agent often fails to stop at the destination even though it might be on the right path. Therefore, we propose Learning to Stop (L2Stop), a simple yet effective policy module that differentiates STOP and other actions. Our approach achieves the new state of the art on a challenging urban VLN dataset Touchdown, outperforming the baseline by 6.89% (absolute improvement) on Success weighted by Edit Distance (SED).

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A Predicate-Function-Argument Annotation of Natural Language for Open-Domain Information eXpression
Mingming Sun | Wenyue Hua | Zoey Liu | Xin Wang | Kangjie Zheng | Ping Li
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Existing OIE (Open Information Extraction) algorithms are independent of each other such that there exist lots of redundant works; the featured strategies are not reusable and not adaptive to new tasks. This paper proposes a new pipeline to build OIE systems, where an Open-domain Information eXpression (OIX) task is proposed to provide a platform for all OIE strategies. The OIX is an OIE friendly expression of a sentence without information loss. The generation procedure of OIX contains shared works of OIE algorithms so that OIE strategies can be developed on the platform of OIX as inference operations focusing on more critical problems. Based on the same platform of OIX, the OIE strategies are reusable, and people can select a set of strategies to assemble their algorithm for a specific task so that the adaptability may be significantly increased. This paper focuses on the task of OIX and propose a solution – Open Information Annotation (OIA). OIA is a predicate-function-argument annotation for sentences. We label a data set of sentence-OIA pairs and propose a dependency-based rule system to generate OIA annotations from sentences. The evaluation results reveal that learning the OIA from a sentence is a challenge owing to the complexity of natural language sentences, and it is worthy of attracting more attention from the research community.

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SSCR: Iterative Language-Based Image Editing via Self-Supervised Counterfactual Reasoning
Tsu-Jui Fu | Xin Wang | Scott Grafton | Miguel Eckstein | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Iterative Language-Based Image Editing (ILBIE) tasks follow iterative instructions to edit images step by step. Data scarcity is a significant issue for ILBIE as it is challenging to collect large-scale examples of images before and after instruction-based changes. Yet, humans still accomplish these editing tasks even when presented with an unfamiliar image-instruction pair. Such ability results from counterfactual thinking, the ability to think about possible alternatives to events that have happened already. In this paper, we introduce a Self-Supervised Counterfactual Reasoning (SSCR) framework that incorporates counterfactual thinking to overcome data scarcity. SSCR allows the model to consider out-of-distribution instructions paired with previous images. With the help of cross-task consistency (CTC), we train these counterfactual instructions in a self-supervised scenario. Extensive results show that SSCR improves the correctness of ILBIE in terms of both object identity and position, establishing a new state of the art (SOTA) on two IBLIE datasets (i-CLEVR and CoDraw). Even with only 50% of the training data, SSCR achieves a comparable result to using complete data.

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Towards Understanding Sample Variance in Visually Grounded Language Generation: Evaluations and Observations
Wanrong Zhu | Xin Wang | Pradyumna Narayana | Kazoo Sone | Sugato Basu | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

A major challenge in visually grounded language generation is to build robust benchmark datasets and models that can generalize well in real-world settings. To do this, it is critical to ensure that our evaluation protocols are correct, and benchmarks are reliable. In this work, we set forth to design a set of experiments to understand an important but often ignored problem in visually grounded language generation: given that humans have different utilities and visual attention, how will the sample variance in multi-reference datasets affect the models’ performance? Empirically, we study several multi-reference datasets and corresponding vision-and-language tasks. We show that it is of paramount importance to report variance in experiments; that human-generated references could vary drastically in different datasets/tasks, revealing the nature of each task; that metric-wise, CIDEr has shown systematically larger variances than others. Our evaluations on reference-per-instance shed light on the design of reliable datasets in the future.

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Advances in Language and Vision Research
Xin Wang | Jesse Thomason | Ronghang Hu | Xinlei Chen | Peter Anderson | Qi Wu | Asli Celikyilmaz | Jason Baldridge | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Advances in Language and Vision Research

2019

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Latent Part-of-Speech Sequences for Neural Machine Translation
Xuewen Yang | Yingru Liu | Dongliang Xie | Xin Wang | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Learning target side syntactic structure has been shown to improve Neural Machine Translation (NMT). However, incorporating syntax through latent variables introduces additional complexity in inference, as the models need to marginalize over the latent syntactic structures. To avoid this, models often resort to greedy search which only allows them to explore a limited portion of the latent space. In this work, we introduce a new latent variable model, LaSyn, that captures the co-dependence between syntax and semantics, while allowing for effective and efficient inference over the latent space. LaSyn decouples direct dependence between successive latent variables, which allows its decoder to exhaustively search through the latent syntactic choices, while keeping decoding speed proportional to the size of the latent variable vocabulary. We implement LaSyn by modifying a transformer-based NMT system and design a neural expectation maximization algorithm that we regularize with part-of-speech information as the latent sequences. Evaluations on four different MT tasks show that incorporating target side syntax with LaSyn improves both translation quality, and also provides an opportunity to improve diversity.

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Latent Suicide Risk Detection on Microblog via Suicide-Oriented Word Embeddings and Layered Attention
Lei Cao | Huijun Zhang | Ling Feng | Zihan Wei | Xin Wang | Ningyun Li | Xiaohao He
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Despite detection of suicidal ideation on social media has made great progress in recent years, people’s implicitly and anti-real contrarily expressed posts still remain as an obstacle, constraining the detectors to acquire higher satisfactory performance. Enlightened by the hidden “tree holes” phenomenon on microblog, where people at suicide risk tend to disclose their inner real feelings and thoughts to the microblog space whose authors have committed suicide, we explore the use of tree holes to enhance microblog-based suicide risk detection from the following two perspectives. (1) We build suicide-oriented word embeddings based on tree hole contents to strength the sensibility of suicide-related lexicons and context based on tree hole contents. (2) A two-layered attention mechanism is deployed to grasp intermittently changing points from individual’s open blog streams, revealing one’s inner emotional world more or less. Our experimental results show that with suicide-oriented word embeddings and attention, microblog-based suicide risk detection can achieve over 91% accuracy. A large-scale well-labelled suicide data set is also reported in the paper.

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TIGEr: Text-to-Image Grounding for Image Caption Evaluation
Ming Jiang | Qiuyuan Huang | Lei Zhang | Xin Wang | Pengchuan Zhang | Zhe Gan | Jana Diesner | Jianfeng Gao
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

This paper presents a new metric called TIGEr for the automatic evaluation of image captioning systems. Popular metrics, such as BLEU and CIDEr, are based solely on text matching between reference captions and machine-generated captions, potentially leading to biased evaluations because references may not fully cover the image content and natural language is inherently ambiguous. Building upon a machine-learned text-image grounding model, TIGEr allows to evaluate caption quality not only based on how well a caption represents image content, but also on how well machine-generated captions match human-generated captions. Our empirical tests show that TIGEr has a higher consistency with human judgments than alternative existing metrics. We also comprehensively assess the metric’s effectiveness in caption evaluation by measuring the correlation between human judgments and metric scores.

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Extract and Edit: An Alternative to Back-Translation for Unsupervised Neural Machine Translation
Jiawei Wu | Xin Wang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

The overreliance on large parallel corpora significantly limits the applicability of machine translation systems to the majority of language pairs. Back-translation has been dominantly used in previous approaches for unsupervised neural machine translation, where pseudo sentence pairs are generated to train the models with a reconstruction loss. However, the pseudo sentences are usually of low quality as translation errors accumulate during training. To avoid this fundamental issue, we propose an alternative but more effective approach, extract-edit, to extract and then edit real sentences from the target monolingual corpora. Furthermore, we introduce a comparative translation loss to evaluate the translated target sentences and thus train the unsupervised translation systems. Experiments show that the proposed approach consistently outperforms the previous state-of-the-art unsupervised machine translation systems across two benchmarks (English-French and English-German) and two low-resource language pairs (English-Romanian and English-Russian) by more than 2 (up to 3.63) BLEU points.

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Towards Generating Long and Coherent Text with Multi-Level Latent Variable Models
Dinghan Shen | Asli Celikyilmaz | Yizhe Zhang | Liqun Chen | Xin Wang | Jianfeng Gao | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Variational autoencoders (VAEs) have received much attention recently as an end-to-end architecture for text generation with latent variables. However, previous works typically focus on synthesizing relatively short sentences (up to 20 words), and the posterior collapse issue has been widely identified in text-VAEs. In this paper, we propose to leverage several multi-level structures to learn a VAE model for generating long, and coherent text. In particular, a hierarchy of stochastic layers between the encoder and decoder networks is employed to abstract more informative and semantic-rich latent codes. Besides, we utilize a multi-level decoder structure to capture the coherent long-term structure inherent in long-form texts, by generating intermediate sentence representations as high-level plan vectors. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed multi-level VAE model produces more coherent and less repetitive long text compared to baselines as well as can mitigate the posterior-collapse issue.

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Self-Supervised Learning for Contextualized Extractive Summarization
Hong Wang | Xin Wang | Wenhan Xiong | Mo Yu | Xiaoxiao Guo | Shiyu Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Existing models for extractive summarization are usually trained from scratch with a cross-entropy loss, which does not explicitly capture the global context at the document level. In this paper, we aim to improve this task by introducing three auxiliary pre-training tasks that learn to capture the document-level context in a self-supervised fashion. Experiments on the widely-used CNN/DM dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary tasks. Furthermore, we show that after pre-training, a clean model with simple building blocks is able to outperform previous state-of-the-art that are carefully designed.

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Self-Supervised Dialogue Learning
Jiawei Wu | Xin Wang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The sequential order of utterances is often meaningful in coherent dialogues, and the order changes of utterances could lead to low-quality and incoherent conversations. We consider the order information as a crucial supervised signal for dialogue learning, which, however, has been neglected by many previous dialogue systems. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a self-supervised learning task, inconsistent order detection, to explicitly capture the flow of conversation in dialogues. Given a sampled utterance pair triple, the task is to predict whether it is ordered or misordered. Then we propose a sampling-based self-supervised network SSN to perform the prediction with sampled triple references from previous dialogue history. Furthermore, we design a joint learning framework where SSN can guide the dialogue systems towards more coherent and relevant dialogue learning through adversarial training. We demonstrate that the proposed methods can be applied to both open-domain and task-oriented dialogue scenarios, and achieve the new state-of-the-art performance on the OpenSubtitiles and Movie-Ticket Booking datasets.

2018

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XL-NBT: A Cross-lingual Neural Belief Tracking Framework
Wenhu Chen | Jianshu Chen | Yu Su | Xin Wang | Dong Yu | Xifeng Yan | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Task-oriented dialog systems are becoming pervasive, and many companies heavily rely on them to complement human agents for customer service in call centers. With globalization, the need for providing cross-lingual customer support becomes more urgent than ever. However, cross-lingual support poses great challenges—it requires a large amount of additional annotated data from native speakers. In order to bypass the expensive human annotation and achieve the first step towards the ultimate goal of building a universal dialog system, we set out to build a cross-lingual state tracking framework. Specifically, we assume that there exists a source language with dialog belief tracking annotations while the target languages have no annotated dialog data of any form. Then, we pre-train a state tracker for the source language as a teacher, which is able to exploit easy-to-access parallel data. We then distill and transfer its own knowledge to the student state tracker in target languages. We specifically discuss two types of common parallel resources: bilingual corpus and bilingual dictionary, and design different transfer learning strategies accordingly. Experimentally, we successfully use English state tracker as the teacher to transfer its knowledge to both Italian and German trackers and achieve promising results.

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No Metrics Are Perfect: Adversarial Reward Learning for Visual Storytelling
Xin Wang | Wenhu Chen | Yuan-Fang Wang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Though impressive results have been achieved in visual captioning, the task of generating abstract stories from photo streams is still a little-tapped problem. Different from captions, stories have more expressive language styles and contain many imaginary concepts that do not appear in the images. Thus it poses challenges to behavioral cloning algorithms. Furthermore, due to the limitations of automatic metrics on evaluating story quality, reinforcement learning methods with hand-crafted rewards also face difficulties in gaining an overall performance boost. Therefore, we propose an Adversarial REward Learning (AREL) framework to learn an implicit reward function from human demonstrations, and then optimize policy search with the learned reward function. Though automatic evaluation indicates slight performance boost over state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods in cloning expert behaviors, human evaluation shows that our approach achieves significant improvement in generating more human-like stories than SOTA systems.

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Watch, Listen, and Describe: Globally and Locally Aligned Cross-Modal Attentions for Video Captioning
Xin Wang | Yuan-Fang Wang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

A major challenge for video captioning is to combine audio and visual cues. Existing multi-modal fusion methods have shown encouraging results in video understanding. However, the temporal structures of multiple modalities at different granularities are rarely explored, and how to selectively fuse the multi-modal representations at different levels of details remains uncharted. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchically aligned cross-modal attention (HACA) framework to learn and selectively fuse both global and local temporal dynamics of different modalities. Furthermore, for the first time, we validate the superior performance of the deep audio features on the video captioning task. Finally, our HACA model significantly outperforms the previous best systems and achieves new state-of-the-art results on the widely used MSR-VTT dataset.

2017

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Predicting Users’ Negative Feedbacks in Multi-Turn Human-Computer Dialogues
Xin Wang | Jianan Wang | Yuanchao Liu | Xiaolong Wang | Zhuoran Wang | Baoxun Wang
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

User experience is essential for human-computer dialogue systems. However, it is impractical to ask users to provide explicit feedbacks when the agents’ responses displease them. Therefore, in this paper, we explore to predict users’ imminent dissatisfactions caused by intelligent agents by analysing the existing utterances in the dialogue sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first work focusing on this task. Several possible factors that trigger negative emotions are modelled. A relation sequence model (RSM) is proposed to encode the sequence of appropriateness of current response with respect to the earlier utterances. The experimental results show that the proposed structure is effective in modelling emotional risk (possibility of negative feedback) than existing conversation modelling approaches. Besides, strategies of obtaining distance supervision data for pre-training are also discussed in this work. Balanced sampling with respect to the last response in the distance supervision data are shown to be reliable for data augmentation.

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Group Linguistic Bias Aware Neural Response Generation
Jianan Wang | Xin Wang | Fang Li | Zhen Xu | Zhuoran Wang | Baoxun Wang
Proceedings of the 9th SIGHAN Workshop on Chinese Language Processing

For practical chatbots, one of the essential factor for improving user experience is the capability of customizing the talking style of the agents, that is, to make chatbots provide responses meeting users’ preference on language styles, topics, etc. To address this issue, this paper proposes to incorporate linguistic biases, which implicitly involved in the conversation corpora generated by human groups in the Social Network Services (SNS), into the encoder-decoder based response generator. By attaching a specially designed neural component to dynamically control the impact of linguistic biases in response generation, a Group Linguistic Bias Aware Neural Response Generation (GLBA-NRG) model is eventually presented. The experimental results on the dataset from the Chinese SNS show that the proposed architecture outperforms the current response generating models by producing both meaningful and vivid responses with customized styles.

2015

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Predicting Polarities of Tweets by Composing Word Embeddings with Long Short-Term Memory
Xin Wang | Yuanchao Liu | Chengjie Sun | Baoxun Wang | Xiaolong Wang
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2010

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Chinese Sentence-Level Sentiment Classification Based on Fuzzy Sets
Guohong Fu | Xin Wang
Coling 2010: Posters

2009

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Chinese Semantic Role Labeling with Shallow Parsing
Weiwei Sun | Zhifang Sui | Meng Wang | Xin Wang
Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing