Xin Zhang


pdf bib
GDA: Generative Data Augmentation Techniques for Relation Extraction Tasks
Xuming Hu | Aiwei Liu | Zeqi Tan | Xin Zhang | Chenwei Zhang | Irwin King | Philip S. Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Relation extraction (RE) tasks show promising performance in extracting relations from two entities mentioned in sentences, given sufficient annotations available during training. Such annotations would be labor-intensive to obtain in practice. Existing work adopts data augmentation techniques to generate pseudo-annotated sentences beyond limited annotations. These techniques neither preserve the semantic consistency of the original sentences when rule-based augmentations are adopted, nor preserve the syntax structure of sentences when expressing relations using seq2seq models, resulting in less diverse augmentations. In this work, we propose a dedicated augmentation technique for relational texts, named GDA, which uses two complementary modules to preserve both semantic consistency and syntax structures. We adopt a generative formulation and design a multi-tasking solution to achieve synergies. Furthermore, GDA adopts entity hints as the prior knowledge of the generative model to augment diverse sentences. Experimental results in three datasets under a low-resource setting showed that GDA could bring 2.0% F1 improvements compared with no augmentation technique.

pdf bib
ReFSQL: A Retrieval-Augmentation Framework for Text-to-SQL Generation
Kun Zhang | Xiexiong Lin | Yuanzhuo Wang | Xin Zhang | Fei Sun | Cen Jianhe | Hexiang Tan | Xuhui Jiang | Huawei Shen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Text-to-SQL is the task that aims at translating natural language questions into SQL queries. Existing methods directly align the natural language with SQL Language and train one encoder-decoder-based model to fit all questions. However, they underestimate the inherent structural characteristics of SQL, as well as the gap between specific structure knowledge and general knowledge. This leads to structure errors in the generated SQL. To address the above challenges, we propose a retrieval-argument framework, namely ReFSQL. It contains two parts, structure-enhanced retriever and the generator. Structure-enhanced retriever is designed to identify samples with comparable specific knowledge in an unsupervised way. Subsequently, we incorporate the retrieved samples’ SQL into the input, enabling the model to acquire prior knowledge of similar SQL grammar. To further bridge the gap between specific and general knowledge, we present a mahalanobis contrastive learning method, which facilitates the transfer of the sample toward the specific knowledge distribution constructed by the retrieved samples. Experimental results on five datasets verify the effectiveness of our approach in improving the accuracy and robustness of Text-to-SQL generation. Our framework has achieved improved performance when combined with many other backbone models (including the 11B flan-T5) and also achieved state-of-the-art performance when compared to existing methods that employ the fine-tuning approach.

pdf bib
SpeechGPT: Empowering Large Language Models with Intrinsic Cross-Modal Conversational Abilities
Dong Zhang | Shimin Li | Xin Zhang | Jun Zhan | Pengyu Wang | Yaqian Zhou | Xipeng Qiu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Multi-modal large language models are regarded as a crucial step towards Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) and have garnered significant interest with the emergence of ChatGPT. However, current speech-language models typically adopt the cascade paradigm, preventing inter-modal knowledge transfer. In this paper, we propose SpeechGPT, a large language model with intrinsic cross-modal conversational abilities, capable of perceiving and generating multi-modal content. With discrete speech representations, we construct SpeechInstruct, the first large-scale cross-modal speech instruction dataset. Additionally, we employ a three-stage training strategy that includes modality-adaptation pre-training, cross-modal instruction fine-tuning, and chain-of-modality instruction fine-tuning. The experimental results demonstrate that SpeechGPT has an impressive capacity to follow cross-modal human instructions and highlight the potential of handling multiple modalities with one model. Code and models are available in Demos are shown in

pdf bib
Sentiment Analysis on Streaming User Reviews via Dual-Channel Dynamic Graph Neural Network
Xin Zhang | Linhai Zhang | Deyu Zhou
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentiment analysis on user reviews has achieved great success thanks to the rapid growth of deep learning techniques. The large number of online streaming reviews also provides the opportunity to model temporal dynamics for users and products on the timeline. However, existing methods model users and products in the real world based on a static assumption and neglect their time-varying characteristics. In this paper, we present DC-DGNN, a dual-channel framework based on a dynamic graph neural network (DGNN) that models temporal user and product dynamics for sentiment analysis. Specifically, a dual-channel text encoder is employed to extract current local and global contexts from review documents for users and products. Moreover, user review streams are integrated into the dynamic graph neural network by treating users and products as nodes and reviews as new edges. Node representations are dynamically updated along with the evolution of the dynamic graph and used for the final score prediction. Experimental results on five real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.

pdf bib
Enhancing Language Model with Unit Test Techniques for Efficient Regular Expression Generation
Chenhui Mao | Xiexiong Lin | Xin Jin | Xin Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Recent research has investigated the use of generative language models to produce regular expressions with semantic-based approaches. However, these approaches have shown shortcomings in practical applications, particularly in terms of functional correctness, which refers to the ability to reproduce the intended function inputs by the user. To address this issue, we present a novel method called Unit-Test Driven Reinforcement Learning (UTD-RL). Our approach differs from previous methods by taking into account the crucial aspect of functional correctness and transforming it into a differentiable gradient feedback using policy gradient techniques. In which functional correctness can be evaluated through Unit Tests, a testing method that ensures regular expressions meets its design and performs as intended. Experiments conducted on three public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in generating regular expressions. This method has been employed in a regulatory scenario where regular expressions can be utilized to ensure that all online content is free from non-compliant elements, thereby significantly reducing the workload of relevant personnel.

pdf bib
TMID: A Comprehensive Real-world Dataset for Trademark Infringement Detection in E-Commerce
Tongxin Hu | Zhuang Li | Xin Jin | Lizhen Qu | Xin Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Annually, e-commerce platforms incur substantial financial losses due to trademark infringements, making it crucial to identify and mitigate potential legal risks tied to merchant information registered to the platforms. However, the absence of high-quality datasets hampers research in this area. To address this gap, our study introduces TMID, a novel dataset to detect trademark infringement in merchant registrations. This is a real-world dataset sourced directly from Alipay, one of the world’s largest e-commerce and digital payment platforms. As infringement detection is a legal reasoning task requiring an understanding of the contexts and legal rules, we offer a thorough collection of legal rules and merchant and trademark-related contextual information with annotations from legal experts. We ensure the data quality by performing an extensive statistical analysis. Furthermore, we conduct an empirical study on this dataset to highlight its value and the key challenges. Through this study, we aim to contribute valuable resources to advance research into legal compliance related to trademark infringement within the e-commerce sphere.


pdf bib
Identifying Chinese Opinion Expressions with Extremely-Noisy Crowdsourcing Annotations
Xin Zhang | Guangwei Xu | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Xiaobin Wang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent works of opinion expression identification (OEI) rely heavily on the quality and scale of the manually-constructed training corpus, which could be extremely difficult to satisfy. Crowdsourcing is one practical solution for this problem, aiming to create a large-scale but quality-unguaranteed corpus. In this work, we investigate Chinese OEI with extremely-noisy crowdsourcing annotations, constructing a dataset at a very low cost. Following Zhang el al. (2021), we train the annotator-adapter model by regarding all annotations as gold-standard in terms of crowd annotators, and test the model by using a synthetic expert, which is a mixture of all annotators. As this annotator-mixture for testing is never modeled explicitly in the training phase, we propose to generate synthetic training samples by a pertinent mixup strategy to make the training and testing highly consistent. The simulation experiments on our constructed dataset show that crowdsourcing is highly promising for OEI, and our proposed annotator-mixup can further enhance the crowdsourcing modeling.

pdf bib
Extending Phrase Grounding with Pronouns in Visual Dialogues
Panzhong Lu | Xin Zhang | Meishan Zhang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Conventional phrase grounding aims to localize noun phrases mentioned in a given caption to their corresponding image regions, which has achieved great success recently. Apparently, sole noun phrase grounding is not enough for cross-modal visual language understanding. Here we extend the task by considering pronouns as well. First, we construct a dataset of phrase grounding with both noun phrases and pronouns to image regions. Based on the dataset, we test the performance of phrase grounding by using a state-of-the-art literature model of this line. Then, we enhance the baseline grounding model with coreference information which should help our task potentially, modeling the coreference structures with graph convolutional networks. Experiments on our dataset, interestingly, show that pronouns are easier to ground than noun phrases, where the possible reason might be that these pronouns are much less ambiguous. Additionally, our final model with coreference information can significantly boost the grounding performance of both noun phrases and pronouns.

pdf bib
Domain-Specific NER via Retrieving Correlated Samples
Xin Zhang | Yong Jiang | Xiaobin Wang | Xuming Hu | Yueheng Sun | Pengjun Xie | Meishan Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Successful Machine Learning based Named Entity Recognition models could fail on texts from some special domains, for instance, Chinese addresses and e-commerce titles, where requires adequate background knowledge. Such texts are also difficult for human annotators. In fact, we can obtain some potentially helpful information from correlated texts, which have some common entities, to help the text understanding. Then, one can easily reason out the correct answer by referencing correlated samples. In this paper, we suggest enhancing NER models with correlated samples. We draw correlated samples by the sparse BM25 retriever from large-scale in-domain unlabeled data. To explicitly simulate the human reasoning process, we perform a training-free entity type calibrating by majority voting. To capture correlation features in the training stage, we suggest to model correlated samples by the transformer-based multi-instance cross-encoder. Empirical results on datasets of the above two domains show the efficacy of our methods.


pdf bib
Sociolectal Analysis of Pretrained Language Models
Sheng Zhang | Xin Zhang | Weiming Zhang | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Using data from English cloze tests, in which subjects also self-reported their gender, age, education, and race, we examine performance differences of pretrained language models across demographic groups, defined by these (protected) attributes. We demonstrate wide performance gaps across demographic groups and show that pretrained language models systematically disfavor young non-white male speakers; i.e., not only do pretrained language models learn social biases (stereotypical associations) – pretrained language models also learn sociolectal biases, learning to speak more like some than like others. We show, however, that, with the exception of BERT models, larger pretrained language models reduce some the performance gaps between majority and minority groups.

pdf bib
Crowdsourcing Learning as Domain Adaptation: A Case Study on Named Entity Recognition
Xin Zhang | Guangwei Xu | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Pengjun Xie
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Crowdsourcing is regarded as one prospective solution for effective supervised learning, aiming to build large-scale annotated training data by crowd workers. Previous studies focus on reducing the influences from the noises of the crowdsourced annotations for supervised models. We take a different point in this work, regarding all crowdsourced annotations as gold-standard with respect to the individual annotators. In this way, we find that crowdsourcing could be highly similar to domain adaptation, and then the recent advances of cross-domain methods can be almost directly applied to crowdsourcing. Here we take named entity recognition (NER) as a study case, suggesting an annotator-aware representation learning model that inspired by the domain adaptation methods which attempt to capture effective domain-aware features. We investigate both unsupervised and supervised crowdsourcing learning, assuming that no or only small-scale expert annotations are available. Experimental results on a benchmark crowdsourced NER dataset show that our method is highly effective, leading to a new state-of-the-art performance. In addition, under the supervised setting, we can achieve impressive performance gains with only a very small scale of expert annotations.


pdf bib
FuRongWang at SemEval-2017 Task 3: Deep Neural Networks for Selecting Relevant Answers in Community Question Answering
Sheng Zhang | Jiajun Cheng | Hui Wang | Xin Zhang | Pei Li | Zhaoyun Ding
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

We describes deep neural networks frameworks in this paper to address the community question answering (cQA) ranking task (SemEval-2017 task 3). Convolutional neural networks and bi-directional long-short term memory networks are applied in our methods to extract semantic information from questions and answers (comments). In addition, in order to take the full advantage of question-comment semantic relevance, we deploy interaction layer and augmented features before calculating the similarity. The results show that our methods have the great effectiveness for both subtask A and subtask C.


pdf bib
Creating a Reusable English-Chinese Parallel Corpus for Bilingual Dictionary Construction
Hercules Dalianis | Hao-chun Xing | Xin Zhang
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

This paper first describes an experiment to construct an English-Chinese parallel corpus, then applying the Uplug word alignment tool on the corpus and finally produce and evaluate an English-Chinese word list. The Stockholm English-Chinese Parallel Corpus (SEC) was created by downloading English-Chinese parallel corpora from a Chinese web site containing law texts that have been manually translated from Chinese to English. The parallel corpus contains 104 563 Chinese characters equivalent to 59 918 Chinese words, and the corresponding English corpus contains 75 766 English words. However Chinese writing does not utilize any delimiters to mark word boundaries so we had to carry out word segmentation as a preprocessing step on the Chinese corpus. Moreover since the parallel corpus is downloaded from Internet the corpus is noisy regarding to alignment between corresponding translated sentences. Therefore we used 60 hours of manually work to align the sentences in the English and Chinese parallel corpus before performing automatic word alignment using Uplug. The word alignment with Uplug was carried out from English to Chinese. Nine respondents evaluated the resulting English-Chinese word list with frequency equal to or above three and we obtained an accuracy of 73.1 percent.