Xinbing Wang


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Unsupervised Graph-Text Mutual Conversion with a Unified Pretrained Language Model
Yi Xu | Shuqian Sheng | Jiexing Qi | Luoyi Fu | Zhouhan Lin | Xinbing Wang | Chenghu Zhou
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Graph-to-text (G2T) generation and text-to-graph (T2G) triple extraction are two essential tasks for knowledge graphs. Existing unsupervised approaches become suitable candidates for jointly learning the two tasks due to their avoidance of using graph-text parallel data. However, they adopt multiple complex modules and still require entity information or relation type for training. To this end, we propose INFINITY, a simple yet effective unsupervised method with a unified pretrained language model that does not introduce external annotation tools or additional parallel information. It achieves fully unsupervised graph-text mutual conversion for the first time. Specifically, INFINITY treats both G2T and T2G as a bidirectional sequence generation task by fine-tuning only one pretrained seq2seq model. A novel back-translation-based framework is then designed to generate synthetic parallel data automatically. Besides, we investigate the impact of graph linearization and introduce the structure-aware fine-tuning strategy to alleviate possible performance deterioration via retaining structural information in graph sequences. As a fully unsupervised framework, INFINITY is empirically verified to outperform state-of-the-art baselines for G2T and T2G tasks. Additionally, we also devise a new training setting called cross learning for low-resource unsupervised information extraction.

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Exploring and Verbalizing Academic Ideas by Concept Co-occurrence
Yi Xu | Shuqian Sheng | Bo Xue | Luoyi Fu | Xinbing Wang | Chenghu Zhou
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Researchers usually come up with new ideas only after thoroughly comprehending vast quantities of literature. The difficulty of this procedure is exacerbated by the fact that the number of academic publications is growing exponentially. In this study, we devise a framework based on concept co-occurrence for academic idea inspiration, which has been integrated into a research assistant system. From our perspective, the emergence of a new idea can be regarded as the fusion of two concepts that co-occur in an academic paper. We construct evolving concept graphs according to the co-occurrence relationship of concepts from 20 disciplines or topics. Then we design a temporal link prediction method based on masked language model to explore potential connections between different concepts. To verbalize the newly discovered connections, we also utilize the pretrained language model to generate a description of an idea based on a new data structure called co-occurrence citation quintuple. We evaluate our proposed system using both automatic metrics and human assessment. The results demonstrate that our system has broad prospects and can assist researchers in expediting the process of discovering new ideas.

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Fourier Transformer: Fast Long Range Modeling by Removing Sequence Redundancy with FFT Operator
Ziwei He | Meng Yang | Minwei Feng | Jingcheng Yin | Xinbing Wang | Jingwen Leng | Zhouhan Lin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The transformer model is known to be computationally demanding, and prohibitively costly for long sequences, as the self-attention module uses a quadratic time and space complexity with respect to sequence length. Many researchers have focused on designing new forms of self-attention or introducing new parameters to overcome this limitation, however a large portion of them prohibits the model to inherit weights from large pretrained models. In this work, the transformer’s inefficiency has been taken care of from another perspective. We propose Fourier Transformer, a simple yet effective approach by progressively removing redundancies in hidden sequence using the ready-made Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operator to perform Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT). Fourier Transformer is able to significantly reduce computational costs while retain the ability to inherit from various large pretrained models. Experiments show that our model achieves state-of-the-art performances among all transformer-based models on the long-range modeling benchmark LRA with significant improvement in both speed and space. For generative seq-to-seq tasks including CNN/DailyMail and ELI5, by inheriting the BART weights our model outperforms the standard BART and other efficient models. Our code will be publicly available at

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Enhancing Uncertainty-Based Hallucination Detection with Stronger Focus
Tianhang Zhang | Lin Qiu | Qipeng Guo | Cheng Deng | Yue Zhang | Zheng Zhang | Chenghu Zhou | Xinbing Wang | Luoyi Fu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large Language Models (LLMs) have gained significant popularity for their impressive performance across diverse fields. However, LLMs are prone to hallucinate untruthful or nonsensical outputs that fail to meet user expectations in many real-world applications. Existing works for detecting hallucinations in LLMs either rely on external knowledge for reference retrieval or require sampling multiple responses from the LLM for consistency verification, making these methods costly and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel reference-free, uncertainty-based method for detecting hallucinations in LLMs. Our approach imitates human focus in factuality checking from three aspects: 1) focus on the most informative and important keywords in the given text; 2) focus on the unreliable tokens in historical context which may lead to a cascade of hallucinations; and 3) focus on the token properties such as token type and token frequency. Experimental results on relevant datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method, which achieves state-of-the-art performance across all the evaluation metrics and eliminates the need for additional information.


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Leveraging Unimodal Self-Supervised Learning for Multimodal Audio-Visual Speech Recognition
Xichen Pan | Peiyu Chen | Yichen Gong | Helong Zhou | Xinbing Wang | Zhouhan Lin
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Training Transformer-based models demands a large amount of data, while obtaining aligned and labelled data in multimodality is rather cost-demanding, especially for audio-visual speech recognition (AVSR). Thus it makes a lot of sense to make use of unlabelled unimodal data. On the other side, although the effectiveness of large-scale self-supervised learning is well established in both audio and visual modalities, how to integrate those pre-trained models into a multimodal scenario remains underexplored. In this work, we successfully leverage unimodal self-supervised learning to promote the multimodal AVSR. In particular, audio and visual front-ends are trained on large-scale unimodal datasets, then we integrate components of both front-ends into a larger multimodal framework which learns to recognize parallel audio-visual data into characters through a combination of CTC and seq2seq decoding. We show that both components inherited from unimodal self-supervised learning cooperate well, resulting in that the multimodal framework yields competitive results through fine-tuning. Our model is experimentally validated on both word-level and sentence-level tasks. Especially, even without an external language model, our proposed model raises the state-of-the-art performances on the widely accepted Lip Reading Sentences 2 (LRS2) dataset by a large margin, with a relative improvement of 30%.

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RFBFN: A Relation-First Blank Filling Network for Joint Relational Triple Extraction
Zhe Li | Luoyi Fu | Xinbing Wang | Haisong Zhang | Chenghu Zhou
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Joint relational triple extraction from unstructured text is an important task in information extraction. However, most existing works either ignore the semantic information of relations or predict subjects and objects sequentially. To address the issues, we introduce a new blank filling paradigm for the task, and propose a relation-first blank filling network (RFBFN). Specifically, we first detect potential relations maintained in the text to aid the following entity pair extraction. Then, we transform relations into relation templates with blanks which contain the fine-grained semantic representation of the relations. Finally, corresponding subjects and objects are extracted simultaneously by filling the blanks. We evaluate the proposed model on public benchmark datasets. Experimental results show our model outperforms current state-of-the-art methods. The source code of our work is available at:

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RASAT: Integrating Relational Structures into Pretrained Seq2Seq Model for Text-to-SQL
Jiexing Qi | Jingyao Tang | Ziwei He | Xiangpeng Wan | Yu Cheng | Chenghu Zhou | Xinbing Wang | Quanshi Zhang | Zhouhan Lin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Relational structures such as schema linking and schema encoding have been validated as a key component to qualitatively translating natural language into SQL queries. However, introducing these structural relations comes with prices: they often result in a specialized model structure, which largely prohibits using large pretrained models in text-to-SQL. To address this problem, we propose RASAT: a Transformer seq2seq architecture augmented with relation-aware self-attention that could leverage a variety of relational structures while inheriting the pretrained parameters from the T5 model effectively. Our model can incorporate almost all types of existing relations in the literature, and in addition, we propose introducing co-reference relations for the multi-turn scenario. Experimental results on three widely used text-to-SQL datasets, covering both single-turn and multi-turn scenarios, have shown that RASAT could achieve competitive results in all three benchmarks, achieving state-of-the-art execution accuracy (75.5% EX on Spider, 52.6% IEX on SParC, and 37.4% IEX on CoSQL).

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Syntax-guided Localized Self-attention by Constituency Syntactic Distance
Shengyuan Hou | Jushi Kai | Haotian Xue | Bingyu Zhu | Bo Yuan | Longtao Huang | Xinbing Wang | Zhouhan Lin
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Recent works have revealed that Transformers are implicitly learning the syntactic information in its lower layers from data, albeit is highly dependent on the quality and scale of the training data. However, learning syntactic information from data is not necessary if we can leverage an external syntactic parser, which provides better parsing quality with well-defined syntactic structures. This could potentially improve Transformer’s performance and sample efficiency. In this work, we propose a syntax-guided localized self-attention for Transformer that allows directly incorporating grammar structures from an external constituency parser. It prohibits the attention mechanism to overweight the grammatically distant tokens over close ones. Experimental results show that our model could consistently improve translation performance on a variety of machine translation datasets, ranging from small to large dataset sizes, and with different source languages.