E-KAR: A Benchmark for Rationalizing Natural Language Analogical Reasoning
Jiangjie Chen | Rui Xu | Ziquan Fu | Wei Shi | Zhongqiao Li | Xinbo Zhang | Changzhi Sun | Lei Li | Yanghua Xiao | Hao Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022
The ability to recognize analogies is fundamental to human cognition. Existing benchmarks to test word analogy do not reveal the underneath process of analogical reasoning of neural models. Holding the belief that models capable of reasoning should be right for the right reasons, we propose a first-of-its-kind Explainable Knowledge-intensive Analogical Reasoning benchmark (E-KAR). Our benchmark consists of 1,655 (in Chinese) and 1,251 (in English) problems sourced from the Civil Service Exams, which require intensive background knowledge to solve. More importantly, we design a free-text explanation scheme to explain whether an analogy should be drawn, and manually annotate them for each and every question and candidate answer. Empirical results suggest that this benchmark is very challenging for some state-of-the-art models for both explanation generation and analogical question answering tasks, which invites further research in this area.
Probabilistic Graph Reasoning for Natural Proof Generation
Changzhi Sun | Xinbo Zhang | Jiangjie Chen | Chun Gan | Yuanbin Wu | Jiaze Chen | Hao Zhou | Lei Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021
A State-transition Framework to Answer Complex Questions over Knowledge Base
Sen Hu | Lei Zou | Xinbo Zhang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
Although natural language question answering over knowledge graphs have been studied in the literature, existing methods have some limitations in answering complex questions. To address that, in this paper, we propose a State Transition-based approach to translate a complex natural language question N to a semantic query graph (SQG), which is used to match the underlying knowledge graph to find the answers to question N. In order to generate SQG, we propose four primitive operations (expand, fold, connect and merge) and a learning-based state transition approach. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks (such as QALD, WebQuestions and ComplexQuestions) with two knowledge bases (DBpedia and Freebase) confirm the superiority of our approach compared with state-of-the-arts.
- Jiangjie Chen 2
- Changzhi Sun 2
- Lei Li 2
- Hao Zhou 2
- Sen Hu 1
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