Large language models have achieved high performance on various question answering (QA) benchmarks, but the explainability of their output remains elusive. Structured explanations, called entailment trees, were recently suggested as a way to explain the reasoning behind a QA system’s answer. In order to better generate such entailment trees, we propose an architecture called Iterative Retrieval-Generation Reasoner (IRGR). Our model is able to explain a given hypothesis by systematically generating a step-by-step explanation from textual premises. The IRGR model iteratively searches for suitable premises, constructing a single entailment step at a time. Contrary to previous approaches, our method combines generation steps and retrieval of premises, allowing the model to leverage intermediate conclusions, and mitigating the input size limit of baseline encoder-decoder models. We conduct experiments using the EntailmentBank dataset, where we outperform existing benchmarks on premise retrieval and entailment tree generation, with around 300% gain in overall correctness.
Recent progress in pretrained Transformer-based language models has shown great success in learning contextual representation of text. However, due to the quadratic self-attention complexity, most of the pretrained Transformers models can only handle relatively short text. It is still a challenge when it comes to modeling very long documents. In this work, we propose to use a graph attention network on top of the available pretrained Transformers model to learn document embeddings. This graph attention network allows us to leverage the high-level semantic structure of the document. In addition, based on our graph document model, we design a simple contrastive learning strategy to pretrain our models on a large amount of unlabeled corpus. Empirically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches in document classification and document retrieval tasks.
Semantic role labeling (SRL) involves extracting propositions (i.e. predicates and their typed arguments) from natural language sentences. State-of-the-art SRL models rely on powerful encoders (e.g., LSTMs) and do not model non-local interaction between arguments. We propose a new approach to modeling these interactions while maintaining efficient inference. Specifically, we use Capsule Networks (Sabour et al., 2017): each proposition is encoded as a tuple of capsules, one capsule per argument type (i.e. role). These tuples serve as embeddings of entire propositions. In every network layer, the capsules interact with each other and with representations of words in the sentence. Each iteration results in updated proposition embeddings and updated predictions about the SRL structure. Our model substantially outperforms the non-refinement baseline model on all 7 CoNLL-2019 languages and achieves state-of-the-art results on 5 languages (including English) for dependency SRL. We analyze the types of mistakes corrected by the refinement procedure. For example, each role is typically (but not always) filled with at most one argument. Whereas enforcing this approximate constraint is not useful with the modern SRL system, iterative procedure corrects the mistakes by capturing this intuition in a flexible and context-sensitive way.
Attention-based neural models have achieved great success in natural language inference (NLI). In this paper, we propose the Convolutional Interaction Network (CIN), a general model to capture the interaction between two sentences, which can be an alternative to the attention mechanism for NLI. Specifically, CIN encodes one sentence with the filters dynamically generated based on another sentence. Since the filters may be designed to have various numbers and sizes, CIN can capture more complicated interaction patterns. Experiments on three large datasets demonstrate CIN’s efficacy.
Different linguistic perspectives causes many diverse segmentation criteria for Chinese word segmentation (CWS). Most existing methods focus on improve the performance for each single criterion. However, it is interesting to exploit these different criteria and mining their common underlying knowledge. In this paper, we propose adversarial multi-criteria learning for CWS by integrating shared knowledge from multiple heterogeneous segmentation criteria. Experiments on eight corpora with heterogeneous segmentation criteria show that the performance of each corpus obtains a significant improvement, compared to single-criterion learning. Source codes of this paper are available on Github.