Fine-tuning pre-trained large language models in a parameter-efficient manner is widely studied for its effectiveness and efficiency. The popular method of low-rank adaptation (LoRA) offers a notable approach, hypothesizing that the adaptation process is intrinsically low-dimensional. Although LoRA has demonstrated commendable performance, it is implemented with a fixed and unalterable intrinsic rank that might not always be the ideal choice. Recognizing the need for more flexible adaptation, we extend the methodology of LoRA to an innovative approach we call sparse low-rank adaptation (SoRA) that enables dynamic adjustments to the intrinsic rank during the adaptation process. We achieve this through the incorporation of a gate unit optimized with proximal gradient method in the training stage, controlling the cardinality of rank under the sparsity of the gate. In the subsequent inference stage, we eliminate the parameter blocks corresponding to the zeroed-out ranks, to reduce each SoRA module back to a concise yet rank-optimal LoRA. Our approach strengthens the representation power of LoRA by initializing it with a higher rank, while efficiently taming a temporarily increased number of parameters via updating in a sparse way. We further introduce a sparsifying scheduler for SoRA, aiming to examine the impact of the number of non-zero parameters on the model’s memorization and generalization. Our experimental results demonstrate that SoRA can outperform other baselines even with 70% retained parameters and 70% training time.
Recent studies show that large-scale pre-trained language models could be efficaciously adapted to particular tasks in a parameter-efficient manner. The trained lightweight set of parameters, such as adapters, can be easily stored and shared as a capability equipped with the corresponding models. Owning many lightweight parameters, we focus on transferring them between tasks to acquire an improvement in performance of new tasks, the key point of which is to obtain the similarity between tasks. In this paper, we explore 5 parameter-efficient weight ensembling methods to achieve such transferability and verify the effectiveness of them. These methods extract the information of datasets and trained lightweight parameters from different perspectives to obtain the similarity between tasks, and weight the existing lightweight parameters according to the comparability to acquire a suitable module for the initialization of new tasks. We apply them to three parameter-efficient tuning methods and test them on a wide set of downstream tasks. Experimental results show that our methods show an improvement of 5%~8% over baselines and could largely facilitate task-level knowledge transfer.
The scale of large pre-trained models (PTMs) poses significant challenges in adapting to downstream tasks due to the high optimization overhead and storage costs associated with full-parameter fine-tuning. To address this, many studies explore parameter-efficient tuning methods, also framed as “delta tuning” in Ding et al. (2022), which updates only a small subset of parameters, known as “delta modules”, while keeping the backbone model’s parameters fixed. However, the practicality and flexibility of delta tuning have been limited due to existing implementations that directly modify the code of the backbone PTMs and hard-code specific delta tuning methods for each PTM. In this paper, we present OpenDelta, an open-source library that overcomes these limitations by providing a plug-and-play implementation of various delta tuning methods. Our novel techniques eliminate the need to modify the backbone PTMs’ code, making OpenDelta compatible with different, even novel PTMs. OpenDelta is designed to be simple, modular, and extensible, providing a comprehensive platform for researchers and practitioners to adapt large PTMs efficiently.