Xinze Li


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Take a Break in the Middle: Investigating Subgoals towards Hierarchical Script Generation
Xinze Li | Yixin Cao | Muhao Chen | Aixin Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Goal-oriented Script Generation is a new task of generating a list of steps that can fulfill the given goal. In this paper, we propose to extend the task from the perspective of cognitive theory. Instead of a simple flat structure, the steps are typically organized hierarchically — Human often decompose a complex task into subgoals, where each subgoal can be further decomposed into steps. To establish the benchmark, we contribute a new dataset, propose several baseline methods, and set up evaluation metrics. Both automatic and human evaluation verify the high-quality of dataset, as well as the effectiveness of incorporating subgoals into hierarchical script generation. Furthermore, We also design and evaluate the model to discover subgoal, and find that it is a bit more difficult to decompose the goals than summarizing from segmented steps.

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Structure-Aware Language Model Pretraining Improves Dense Retrieval on Structured Data
Xinze Li | Zhenghao Liu | Chenyan Xiong | Shi Yu | Yu Gu | Zhiyuan Liu | Ge Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

This paper presents Structure Aware Dense Retrieval (SANTA) model, which encodes user queries and structured data in one universal embedding space for retrieving structured data. SANTA proposes two pretraining methods to make language models structure-aware and learn effective representations for structured data: 1) Structured Data Alignment, which utilizes the natural alignment relations between structured data and unstructured data for structure-aware pretraining. It contrastively trains language models to represent multi-modal text data and teaches models to distinguish matched structured data for unstructured texts. 2) Masked Entity Prediction, which designs an entity-oriented mask strategy and asks language models to fill in the masked entities. Our experiments show that SANTA achieves state-of-the-art on code search and product search and conducts convincing results in the zero-shot setting. SANTA learns tailored representations for multi-modal text data by aligning structured and unstructured data pairs and capturing structural semantics by masking and predicting entities in the structured data. All codes are available at


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MMEKG: Multi-modal Event Knowledge Graph towards Universal Representation across Modalities
Yubo Ma | Zehao Wang | Mukai Li | Yixin Cao | Meiqi Chen | Xinze Li | Wenqi Sun | Kunquan Deng | Kun Wang | Aixin Sun | Jing Shao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Events are fundamental building blocks of real-world happenings. In this paper, we present a large-scale, multi-modal event knowledge graph named MMEKG. MMEKG unifies different modalities of knowledge via events, which complement and disambiguate each other. Specifically, MMEKG incorporates (i) over 990 thousand concept events with 644 relation types to cover most types of happenings, and (ii) over 863 million instance events connected through 934 million relations, which provide rich contextual information in texts and/or images. To collect billion-scale instance events and relations among them, we additionally develop an efficient yet effective pipeline for textual/visual knowledge extraction system. We also develop an induction strategy to create million-scale concept events and a schema organizing all events and relations in MMEKG. To this end, we also provide a pipeline enabling our system to seamlessly parse texts/images to event graphs and to retrieve multi-modal knowledge at both concept- and instance-levels.