Xuanyu Zhang


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Improving Factual Consistency in Abstractive Summarization with Sentence Structure Pruning
Dingxin Hu | Xuanyu Zhang | Xingyue Zhang | Yiyang Li | Dongsheng Chen | Marina Litvak | Natalia Vanetik | Qing Yang | Dongliang Xu | Yanquan Zhou | Lei Li | Yuze Li | Yingqi Zhu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

State-of-the-art abstractive summarization models still suffer from the content contradiction between the summaries and the input text, which is referred to as the factual inconsistency problem. Recently, a large number of works have also been proposed to evaluate factual consistency or improve it by post-editing methods. However, these post-editing methods typically focus on replacing suspicious entities, failing to identify and modify incorrect content hidden in sentence structures. In this paper, we first verify that the correctable errors can be enriched by leveraging sentence structure pruning operation, and then we propose a post-editing method based on that. In the correction process, the pruning operation on possible errors is performed on the syntactic dependency tree with the guidance of multiple factual evaluation metrics. Experimenting on the FRANK dataset shows a great improvement in factual consistency compared with strong baselines and, when combined with them, can achieve even better performance. All the codes and data will be released on paper acceptance.


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Adaptive Attention for Sparse-based Long-sequence Transformer
Xuanyu Zhang | Zhepeng Lv | Qing Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Recently, Transformers have been widely used in various fields and have achieved remarkable results. But it is still difficult for Transformer-based models to process longer sequences because self-attention in them scales quadratically with the sequence length. Although some models attempt to use sparse attention to reduce computational complexity, hand-crafted attention patterns are unable to select useful tokens adaptively according to the context. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel efficient Transformer model with adaptive attention, A2-Former, for long sequence modeling. It can select useful tokens automatically in sparse attention by learnable position vectors, which consist of meta position and offset position vectors. Because the learnable offset position is not an integer vector, we utilize the interpolation technique to gather corresponding vectors from the input embedding matrix by discrete indexes. Experiments on Long Range Arena (LRA), a systematic and unified benchmark with different tasks, show that our model has achieved further improvement in performance compared with other sparse-based Transformers.

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Generating Extractive Answers: Gated Recurrent Memory Reader for Conversational Question Answering
Xuanyu Zhang | Qing Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Conversational question answering (CQA) is a more complicated task than traditional single-turn machine reading comprehension (MRC). Different from large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT, the models of CQA need to extract answers from given contents to answer follow-up questions according to conversation history. In this paper, we propose a novel architecture, i.e., Gated Recurrent Memory Reader (GRMR), which integrates traditional extractive MRC models into a generalized sequence-to-sequence framework. After the passage is encoded, the decoder will generate the extractive answers turn by turn. Different from previous models that concatenate the previous questions and answers as context superficially and redundantly, our model can use less storage space and consider historical memory deeply and selectively. Experiments on the Conversational Question Answering (CoQA) dataset show that our model achieves comparable results to most models with the least space occupancy.


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TranS: Transition-based Knowledge Graph Embedding with Synthetic Relation Representation
Xuanyu Zhang | Qing Yang | Dongliang Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) aims to learn continuous vector representations of relations and entities in knowledge graph (KG). Recently, transition-based KGE methods have become popular and achieved promising performance. However, scoring patterns like TransE are not suitable for complex scenarios where the same entity pair has different relations. Although some models attempt to employ entity-relation interaction or projection to improve entity representation for one-to-many/many-to-one/many-to-many complex relations, they still continue the traditional scoring pattern, where only a single relation vector in the relation part is used to translate the head entity to the tail entity or their variants. And recent research shows that entity representation only needs to consider entities and their interactions to achieve better performance. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel transition-based method, TranS, for KGE. The single relation vector of the relation part in the traditional scoring pattern is replaced by the synthetic relation representation with entity-relation interactions to solve these issues. And the entity part still retains its independence through entity-entity interactions. Experiments on a large KG dataset, ogbl-wikikg2, show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results.

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Instance-Guided Prompt Learning for Few-Shot Text Matching
Jia Du | Xuanyu Zhang | Siyi Wang | Kai Wang | Yanquan Zhou | Lei Li | Qing Yang | Dongliang Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Few-shot text matching is a more practical technique in natural language processing (NLP) to determine whether two texts are semantically identical. They primarily design patterns to reformulate text matching into a pre-trained task with uniform prompts across all instances. But they fail to take into account the connection between prompts and instances. This paper argues that dynamically strengthening the correlation between particular instances and the prompts is necessary because fixed prompts cannot adequately fit all diverse instances in inference. We suggest IGATE: Instance-Guided prompt leArning for few-shoT tExt matching, a novel pluggable prompt learning method. The gate mechanism used by IGATE, which is between the embedding and the PLM encoders, makes use of the semantics of instances to regulate the effects of the gate on the prompt tokens. The experimental findings show that IGATE achieves SOTA performance on MRPC and QQP, outperforming strong baselines. GitHub will host the release of codes.


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MCˆ2: Multi-perspective Convolutional Cube for Conversational Machine Reading Comprehension
Xuanyu Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Conversational machine reading comprehension (CMRC) extends traditional single-turn machine reading comprehension (MRC) by multi-turn interactions, which requires machines to consider the history of conversation. Most of models simply combine previous questions for conversation understanding and only employ recurrent neural networks (RNN) for reasoning. To comprehend context profoundly and efficiently from different perspectives, we propose a novel neural network model, Multi-perspective Convolutional Cube (MCˆ2). We regard each conversation as a cube. 1D and 2D convolutions are integrated with RNN in our model. To avoid models previewing the next turn of conversation, we also extend causal convolution partially to 2D. Experiments on the Conversational Question Answering (CoQA) dataset show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results.