Xue-Yong Fu

Also published as: Xue-yong Fu


2023

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Building Real-World Meeting Summarization Systems using Large Language Models: A Practical Perspective
Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Xue-Yong Fu | Cheng Chen | Shashi Bhushan TN
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

This paper studies how to effectively build meeting summarization systems for real-world usage using large language models (LLMs). For this purpose, we conduct an extensive evaluation and comparison of various closed-source and open-source LLMs, namely, GPT-4, GPT-3.5, PaLM-2, and LLaMA-2. Our findings reveal that most closed-source LLMs are generally better in terms of performance. However, much smaller open-source models like LLaMA-2 (7B and 13B) could still achieve performance comparable to the large closed-source models even in zero-shot scenarios. Considering the privacy concerns of closed-source models for only being accessible via API, alongside the high cost associated with using fine-tuned versions of the closed-source models, the opensource models that can achieve competitive performance are more advantageous for industrial use. Balancing performance with associated costs and privacy concerns, the LLaMA-2-7B model looks more promising for industrial usage. In sum, this paper offers practical insights on using LLMs for real-world business meeting summarization, shedding light on the trade-offs between performance and cost.

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AI Coach Assist: An Automated Approach for Call Recommendation in Contact Centers for Agent Coaching
Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Cheng Chen | Xue-yong Fu | Mahsa Azizi | Shashi Bhushan | Simon Corston-oliver
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 5: Industry Track)

In recent years, the utilization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the contact center industry is on the rise. One area where AI can have a significant impact is in the coaching of contact center agents. By analyzing call transcripts, AI can quickly determine which calls are most relevant for coaching purposes, and provide relevant feedback and insights to the contact center manager or supervisor. In this paper, we present “AI Coach Assis”, which leverages the pre-trained transformer-based language models to determine whether a given call is coachable or not based on the quality assurance (QA) queries/questions asked by the contact center managers or supervisors. The system was trained and evaluated on a large dataset collected from real-world contact centers and provides an efficient and effective way to determine which calls are most relevant for coaching purposes. Extensive experimental evaluation demonstrates the potential of AI Coach Assist to improve the coaching process, resulting in enhancing the performance of contact center agents.

2022

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Improving Named Entity Recognition in Telephone Conversations via Effective Active Learning with Human in the Loop
Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Cheng Chen | Xue-yong Fu | Shashi Bhushan Tn
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Data Science with Human-in-the-Loop (Language Advances)

Telephone transcription data can be very noisy due to speech recognition errors, disfluencies, etc. Not only that annotating such data is very challenging for the annotators, but also such data may have lots of annotation errors even after the annotation job is completed, resulting in a very poor model performance. In this paper, we present an active learning framework that leverages human in the loop learning to identify data samples from the annotated dataset for re-annotation that are more likely to contain annotation errors. In this way, we largely reduce the need for data re-annotation for the whole dataset. We conduct extensive experiments with our proposed approach for Named Entity Recognition and observe that by re-annotating only about 6% training instances out of the whole dataset, the F1 score for a certain entity type can be significantly improved by about 25%.

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Developing a Production System for Purpose of Call Detection in Business Phone Conversations
Elena Khasanova | Pooja Hiranandani | Shayna Gardiner | Cheng Chen | Simon Corston-Oliver | Xue-Yong Fu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

For agents at a contact centre receiving calls, the most important piece of information is the reason for a given call. An agent cannot provide support on a call if they do not know why a customer is calling. In this paper we describe our implementation of a commercial system to detect Purpose of Call statements in English business call transcripts in real time. We present a detailed analysis of types of Purpose of Call statements and language patterns related to them, discuss an approach to collect rich training data by bootstrapping from a set of rules to a neural model, and describe a hybrid model which consists of a transformer-based classifier and a set of rules by leveraging insights from the analysis of call transcripts. The model achieved 88.6 F1 on average in various types of business calls when tested on real life data and has low inference time. We reflect on the challenges and design decisions when developing and deploying the system.

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BLINK with Elasticsearch for Efficient Entity Linking in Business Conversations
Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Cheng Chen | Aliaksandr Martsinovich | Jonathan Johnston | Xue-Yong Fu | Shashi Bhushan Tn | Simon Corston-Oliver
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

An Entity Linking system aligns the textual mentions of entities in a text to their corresponding entries in a knowledge base. However, deploying a neural entity linking system for efficient real-time inference in production environments is a challenging task. In this work, we present a neural entity linking system that connects the product and organization type entities in business conversations to their corresponding Wikipedia and Wikidata entries. The proposed system leverages Elasticsearch to ensure inference efficiency when deployed in a resource limited cloud machine, and obtains significant improvements in terms of inference speed and memory consumption while retaining high accuracy.

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An Effective, Performant Named Entity Recognition System for Noisy Business Telephone Conversation Transcripts
Xue-Yong Fu | Cheng Chen | Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Shashi Bhushan Tn | Simon Corston-Oliver
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2022)

We present a simple yet effective method to train a named entity recognition (NER) model that operates on business telephone conversation transcripts that contain noise due to the nature of spoken conversation and artifacts of automatic speech recognition. We first fine-tune LUKE, a state-of-the-art Named Entity Recognition (NER) model, on a limited amount of transcripts, then use it as the teacher model to teach a smaller DistilBERT-based student model using a large amount of weakly labeled data and a small amount of human-annotated data. The model achieves high accuracy while also satisfying the practical constraints for inclusion in a commercial telephony product: realtime performance when deployed on cost-effective CPUs rather than GPUs. In this paper, we introduce the fine-tune-then-distill method for entity recognition on real world noisy data to deploy our NER model in a limited budget production environment. By generating pseudo-labels using a large teacher model pre-trained on typed text while fine-tuned on noisy speech text to train a smaller student model, we make the student model 75x times faster while reserving 99.09% of its accuracy. These findings demonstrate that our proposed approach is very effective in limited budget scenarios to alleviate the need of human labeling of a large amount of noisy data.

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Entity-level Sentiment Analysis in Contact Center Telephone Conversations
Xue-yong Fu | Cheng Chen | Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Shayna Gardiner | Pooja Hiranandani | Shashi Bhushan Tn
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: Industry Track

Entity-level sentiment analysis predicts the sentiment about entities mentioned in a given text. It is very useful in a business context to understand user emotions towards certain entities, such as products or companies. In this paper, we demonstrate how we developed an entity-level sentiment analysis system that analyzes English telephone conversation transcripts in contact centers to provide business insight. We present two approaches, one entirely based on the transformer-based DistilBERT model, and another that uses a neural network supplemented with some heuristic rules.

2021

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Improving Punctuation Restoration for Speech Transcripts via External Data
Xue-Yong Fu | Cheng Chen | Md Tahmid Rahman Laskar | Shashi Bhushan | Simon Corston-Oliver
Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2021)

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems generally do not produce punctuated transcripts. To make transcripts more readable and follow the expected input format for downstream language models, it is necessary to add punctuation marks. In this paper, we tackle the punctuation restoration problem specifically for the noisy text (e.g., phone conversation scenarios). To leverage the available written text datasets, we introduce a data sampling technique based on an n-gram language model to sample more training data that are similar to our in-domain data. Moreover, we propose a two-stage fine-tuning approach that utilizes the sampled external data as well as our in-domain dataset for models based on BERT. Extensive experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline with an improvement of 1.12% F1 score.