This paper is concerned with whether deep syntactic information can help surface parsing, with a particular focus on empty categories. We design new algorithms to produce dependency trees in which empty elements are allowed, and evaluate the impact of information about empty category on parsing overt elements. Such information is helpful to reduce the approximation error in a structured parsing model, but increases the search space for inference and accordingly the estimation error. To deal with structure-based overfitting, we propose to integrate disambiguation models with and without empty elements, and perform structure regularization via joint decoding. Experiments on English and Chinese TreeBanks with different parsing models indicate that incorporating empty elements consistently improves surface parsing.
Peking: Building Semantic Dependency Graphs with a Hybrid Parser
Yantao Du | Fan Zhang | Xun Zhang | Weiwei Sun | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)