Xunliang Cai


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APP: Adaptive Prototypical Pseudo-Labeling for Few-shot OOD Detection
Pei Wang | Keqing He | Yutao Mou | Xiaoshuai Song | Yanan Wu | Jingang Wang | Yunsen Xian | Xunliang Cai | Weiran Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Detecting out-of-domain (OOD) intents from user queries is essential for a task-oriented dialogue system. Previous OOD detection studies generally work on the assumption that plenty of labeled IND intents exist. In this paper, we focus on a more practical few-shot OOD setting where there are only a few labeled IND data and massive unlabeled mixed data that may belong to IND or OOD. The new scenario carries two key challenges: learning discriminative representations using limited IND data and leveraging unlabeled mixed data. Therefore, we propose an adaptive prototypical pseudo-labeling(APP) method for few-shot OOD detection, including a prototypical OOD detection framework (ProtoOOD) to facilitate low-resourceOOD detection using limited IND data, and an adaptive pseudo-labeling method to produce high-quality pseudo OOD and IND labels. Extensive experiments and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of our method for few-shot OOD detection.

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Retrieval-based Knowledge Transfer: An Effective Approach for Extreme Large Language Model Compression
Jiduan Liu | Jiahao Liu | Qifan Wang | Jingang Wang | Xunliang Cai | Dongyan Zhao | Ran Wang | Rui Yan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large-scale pre-trained language models (LLMs) have demonstrated exceptional performance in various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, the massive size of these models poses huge challenges for their deployment in real-world applications. While numerous model compression techniques have been proposed, most of them are not well-suited for achieving extreme model compression when there is a significant gap in model scale. In this paper, we introduce a novel compression paradigm called Retrieval-based Knowledge Transfer (RetriKT), which effectively transfers the knowledge of LLMs to extremely small-scale models (e.g., 1%). In particular, our approach extracts knowledge from LLMs to construct a knowledge store, from which the small-scale model can retrieve relevant information and leverage it for effective inference. To improve the quality of the model, soft prompt tuning and Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) reinforcement learning techniques are employed. Extensive experiments are conducted on low-resource tasks from SuperGLUE and GLUE benchmarks. The results demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly enhances the performance of small-scale models by leveraging the knowledge from LLMs.

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Improving Input-label Mapping with Demonstration Replay for In-context Learning
Zhuocheng Gong | Jiahao Liu | Qifan Wang | Jingang Wang | Xunliang Cai | Dongyan Zhao | Rui Yan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

In-context learning (ICL) is an emerging capability of large autoregressive language models where a few input-label demonstrations are appended to the input to enhance the model’s understanding of downstream NLP tasks, without directly adjusting the model parameters. The effectiveness of ICL can be attributed to the strong language modeling capabilities of large language models (LLMs), which enable them to learn the mapping between input and labels based on in-context demonstrations. Despite achieving promising results, the causal nature of language modeling in ICL restricts the attention to be backward only, i.e., a token only attends to its previous tokens, failing to capture the full input-label information and limiting the model’s performance. In this paper, we propose a novel ICL method called Repeated Demonstration with Sliding Causal Attention, (RdSca). Specifically, we duplicate later demonstrations and concatenate them to the front, allowing the model to ‘observe’ the later information even under the causal restriction. Besides, we introduce sliding causal attention, which customizes causal attention to avoid information leakage. Experimental results show that our method significantly improves the input-label mapping in ICL demonstrations. We also conduct an in-depth analysis of how to customize the causal attention without training, which has been an unexplored area in previous research.

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Large Language Models Meet Open-World Intent Discovery and Recognition: An Evaluation of ChatGPT
Xiaoshuai Song | Keqing He | Pei Wang | Guanting Dong | Yutao Mou | Jingang Wang | Yunsen Xian | Xunliang Cai | Weiran Xu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The tasks of out-of-domain (OOD) intent discovery and generalized intent discovery (GID) aim to extend a closed intent classifier to open-world intent sets, which is crucial to task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems. Previous methods address them by fine-tuning discriminative models. Recently, although some studies has been exploring the application of large language models (LLMs) represented by ChatGPT to various downstream tasks, it is still unclear for the ability of ChatGPT to discover and incrementally extent OOD intents. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluate ChatGPT on OOD intent discovery and GID, and then outline the strengths and weaknesses of ChatGPT. Overall, ChatGPT exhibits consistent advantages under zero-shot settings, but is still at a disadvantage compared to fine-tuned models. More deeply, through a series of analytical experiments, we summarize and discuss the challenges faced by LLMs including clustering, domain-specific understanding, and cross-domain in-context learning scenarios. Finally, we provide empirical guidance for future directions to address these challenges.


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From Paraphrasing to Semantic Parsing: Unsupervised Semantic Parsing via Synchronous Semantic Decoding
Shan Wu | Bo Chen | Chunlei Xin | Xianpei Han | Le Sun | Weipeng Zhang | Jiansong Chen | Fan Yang | Xunliang Cai
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Semantic parsing is challenging due to the structure gap and the semantic gap between utterances and logical forms. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised semantic parsing method - Synchronous Semantic Decoding (SSD), which can simultaneously resolve the semantic gap and the structure gap by jointly leveraging paraphrasing and grammar-constrained decoding. Specifically, we reformulate semantic parsing as a constrained paraphrasing problem: given an utterance, our model synchronously generates its canonical utterancel and meaning representation. During synchronously decoding: the utterance paraphrasing is constrained by the structure of the logical form, therefore the canonical utterance can be paraphrased controlledly; the semantic decoding is guided by the semantics of the canonical utterance, therefore its logical form can be generated unsupervisedly. Experimental results show that SSD is a promising approach and can achieve state-of-the-art unsupervised semantic parsing performance on multiple datasets.

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Domain-Lifelong Learning for Dialogue State Tracking via Knowledge Preservation Networks
Qingbin Liu | Pengfei Cao | Cao Liu | Jiansong Chen | Xunliang Cai | Fan Yang | Shizhu He | Kang Liu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Dialogue state tracking (DST), which estimates user goals given a dialogue context, is an essential component of task-oriented dialogue systems. Conventional DST models are usually trained offline, which requires a fixed dataset prepared in advance. This paradigm is often impractical in real-world applications since online dialogue systems usually involve continually emerging new data and domains. Therefore, this paper explores Domain-Lifelong Learning for Dialogue State Tracking (DLL-DST), which aims to continually train a DST model on new data to learn incessantly emerging new domains while avoiding catastrophically forgetting old learned domains. To this end, we propose a novel domain-lifelong learning method, called Knowledge Preservation Networks (KPN), which consists of multi-prototype enhanced retrospection and multi-strategy knowledge distillation, to solve the problems of expression diversity and combinatorial explosion in the DLL-DST task. Experimental results show that KPN effectively alleviates catastrophic forgetting and outperforms previous state-of-the-art lifelong learning methods by 4.25% and 8.27% of whole joint goal accuracy on the MultiWOZ benchmark and the SGD benchmark, respectively.