Yan Gao


pdf bib
HiTab: A Hierarchical Table Dataset for Question Answering and Natural Language Generation
Zhoujun Cheng | Haoyu Dong | Zhiruo Wang | Ran Jia | Jiaqi Guo | Yan Gao | Shi Han | Jian-Guang Lou | Dongmei Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Tables are often created with hierarchies, but existing works on table reasoning mainly focus on flat tables and neglect hierarchical tables. Hierarchical tables challenge numerical reasoning by complex hierarchical indexing, as well as implicit relationships of calculation and semantics. We present a new dataset, HiTab, to study question answering (QA) and natural language generation (NLG) over hierarchical tables. HiTab is a cross-domain dataset constructed from a wealth of statistical reports and Wikipedia pages, and has unique characteristics: (1) nearly all tables are hierarchical, and (2) QA pairs are not proposed by annotators from scratch, but are revised from real and meaningful sentences authored by analysts. (3) to reveal complex numerical reasoning in statistical reports, we provide fine-grained annotations of quantity and entity alignment. Experiments suggest that this HiTab presents a strong challenge for existing baselines and a valuable benchmark for future research. Targeting hierarchical structure, we devise a hierarchy-aware logical form for symbolic reasoning over tables, which shows high effectiveness. Targeting table reasoning, we leverage entity and quantity alignment to explore partially supervised training in QA and conditional generation in NLG, and largely reduce spurious predictions in QA and produce better descriptions in NLG.

pdf bib
Towards Robustness of Text-to-SQL Models Against Natural and Realistic Adversarial Table Perturbation
Xinyu Pi | Bing Wang | Yan Gao | Jiaqi Guo | Zhoujun Li | Jian-Guang Lou
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

The robustness of Text-to-SQL parsers against adversarial perturbations plays a crucial role in delivering highly reliable applications. Previous studies along this line primarily focused on perturbations in the natural language question side, neglecting the variability of tables. Motivated by this, we propose the Adversarial Table Perturbation (ATP) as a new attacking paradigm to measure robustness of Text-to-SQL models. Following this proposition, we curate ADVETA, the first robustness evaluation benchmark featuring natural and realistic ATPs. All tested state-of-the-art models experience dramatic performance drops on ADVETA, revealing significant room of improvement. To defense against ATP, we build a systematic adversarial training example generation framework tailored for better contextualization of tabular data. Experiments show that our approach brings models best robustness improvement against ATP, while also substantially boost model robustness against NL-side perturbations. We will release ADVETA and code to facilitate future research.

pdf bib
Improving Relevance Quality in Product Search using High-Precision Query-Product Semantic Similarity
Alireza Bagheri Garakani | Fan Yang | Wen-Yu Hua | Yetian Chen | Michinari Momma | Jingyuan Deng | Yan Gao | Yi Sun
Proceedings of The Fifth Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP (ECNLP 5)

Ensuring relevance quality in product search is a critical task as it impacts the customer’s ability to find intended products in the short-term as well as the general perception and trust of the e-commerce system in the long term. In this work we leverage a high-precision cross-encoder BERT model for semantic similarity between customer query and products and survey its effectiveness for three ranking applications where offline-generated scores could be used: (1) as an offline metric for estimating relevance quality impact, (2) as a re-ranking feature covering head/torso queries, and (3) as a training objective for optimization. We present results on effectiveness of this strategy for the large e-commerce setting, which has general applicability for choice of other high-precision models and tasks in ranking.

pdf bib
Spelling Correction using Phonetics in E-commerce Search
Fan Yang | Alireza Bagheri Garakani | Yifei Teng | Yan Gao | Jia Liu | Jingyuan Deng | Yi Sun
Proceedings of The Fifth Workshop on e-Commerce and NLP (ECNLP 5)

In E-commerce search, spelling correction plays an important role to find desired products for customers in processing user-typed search queries. However, resolving phonetic errors is a critical but much overlooked area. The query with phonetic spelling errors tends to appear correct based on pronunciation but is nonetheless inaccurate in spelling (e.g., “bluetooth sound system” vs. “blutut sant sistam”) with numerous noisy forms and sparse occurrences. In this work, we propose a generalized spelling correction system integrating phonetics to address phonetic errors in E-commerce search without additional latency cost. Using India (IN) E-commerce market for illustration, the experiment shows that our proposed phonetic solution significantly improves the F1 score by 9%+ and recall of phonetic errors by 8%+. This phonetic spelling correction system has been deployed to production, currently serving hundreds of millions of customers.


pdf bib
Translating Headers of Tabular Data: A Pilot Study of Schema Translation
Kunrui Zhu | Yan Gao | Jiaqi Guo | Jian-Guang Lou
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Schema translation is the task of automatically translating headers of tabular data from one language to another. High-quality schema translation plays an important role in cross-lingual table searching, understanding and analysis. Despite its importance, schema translation is not well studied in the community, and state-of-the-art neural machine translation models cannot work well on this task because of two intrinsic differences between plain text and tabular data: morphological difference and context difference. To facilitate the research study, we construct the first parallel dataset for schema translation, which consists of 3,158 tables with 11,979 headers written in 6 different languages, including English, Chinese, French, German, Spanish, and Japanese. Also, we propose the first schema translation model called CAST, which is a header-to-header neural machine translation model augmented with schema context. Specifically, we model a target header and its context as a directed graph to represent their entity types and relations. Then CAST encodes the graph with a relational-aware transformer and uses another transformer to decode the header in the target language. Experiments on our dataset demonstrate that CAST significantly outperforms state-of-the-art neural machine translation models. Our dataset will be released at https://github.com/microsoft/ContextualSP.


pdf bib
“What Do You Mean by That?” A Parser-Independent Interactive Approach for Enhancing Text-to-SQL
Yuntao Li | Bei Chen | Qian Liu | Yan Gao | Jian-Guang Lou | Yan Zhang | Dongmei Zhang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

In Natural Language Interfaces to Databases systems, the text-to-SQL technique allows users to query databases by using natural language questions. Though significant progress in this area has been made recently, most parsers may fall short when they are deployed in real systems. One main reason stems from the difficulty of fully understanding the users’ natural language questions. In this paper, we include human in the loop and present a novel parser-independent interactive approach (PIIA) that interacts with users using multi-choice questions and can easily work with arbitrary parsers. Experiments were conducted on two cross-domain datasets, the WikiSQL and the more complex Spider, with five state-of-the-art parsers. These demonstrated that PIIA is capable of enhancing the text-to-SQL performance with limited interaction turns by using both simulation and human evaluation.


pdf bib
Towards Complex Text-to-SQL in Cross-Domain Database with Intermediate Representation
Jiaqi Guo | Zecheng Zhan | Yan Gao | Yan Xiao | Jian-Guang Lou | Ting Liu | Dongmei Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a neural approach called IRNet for complex and cross-domain Text-to-SQL. IRNet aims to address two challenges: 1) the mismatch between intents expressed in natural language (NL) and the implementation details in SQL; 2) the challenge in predicting columns caused by the large number of out-of-domain words. Instead of end-to-end synthesizing a SQL query, IRNet decomposes the synthesis process into three phases. In the first phase, IRNet performs a schema linking over a question and a database schema. Then, IRNet adopts a grammar-based neural model to synthesize a SemQL query which is an intermediate representation that we design to bridge NL and SQL. Finally, IRNet deterministically infers a SQL query from the synthesized SemQL query with domain knowledge. On the challenging Text-to-SQL benchmark Spider, IRNet achieves 46.7% accuracy, obtaining 19.5% absolute improvement over previous state-of-the-art approaches. At the time of writing, IRNet achieves the first position on the Spider leaderboard.


pdf bib
The SAS Statistical Machine Translation System for WAT 2014
Rui Wang | Xu Yang | Yan Gao
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Asian Translation (WAT2014)


pdf bib
The Annotation of Event Schema in Chinese
Hongjian Zou | Erhong Yang | Yan Gao | Qingqing Zeng
Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Asian Language Resouces

pdf bib
Chinese Word Sense Induction based on Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm
Ke Cai | Xiaodong Shi | Yidong Chen | Zhehuang Huang | Yan Gao
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing