Yang Chen


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Multi2Claim: Generating Scientific Claims from Multi-Choice Questions for Scientific Fact-Checking
Neset Tan | Trung Nguyen | Josh Bensemann | Alex Peng | Qiming Bao | Yang Chen | Mark Gahegan | Michael Witbrock
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Training machine learning models to successfully perform scientific fact-checking tasks is challenging due to the expertise bottleneck that limits the availability of appropriate training datasets. In this task, models use textual evidence to confirm scientific claims, which requires data that contains extensive domain-expert annotation. Consequently, the number of existing scientific-fact-checking datasets and the sizes of those datasets are limited. However, these limitations do not apply to multiple-choice question datasets because of the necessity of domain exams in the modern education system. As one of the first steps towards addressing the fact-checking dataset scarcity problem in scientific domains, we propose a pipeline for automatically converting multiple-choice questions into fact-checking data, which we call Multi2Claim. By applying the proposed pipeline, we generated two large-scale datasets for scientific-fact-checking tasks: Med-Fact and Gsci-Fact for the medical and general science domains, respectively. These two datasets are among the first examples of large-scale scientific-fact-checking datasets. We developed baseline models for the verdict prediction task using each dataset. Additionally, we demonstrated that the datasets could be used to improve performance with respect to the F 1 weighted metric on existing fact-checking datasets such as SciFact, HEALTHVER, COVID-Fact, and CLIMATE-FEVER. In some cases, the improvement in performance was up to a 26% increase.

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Can Pre-trained Vision and Language Models Answer Visual Information-Seeking Questions?
Yang Chen | Hexiang Hu | Yi Luan | Haitian Sun | Soravit Changpinyo | Alan Ritter | Ming-Wei Chang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained vision and language models have demonstrated state-of-the-art capabilities over existing tasks involving images and texts, including visual question answering. However, it remains unclear whether these models possess the capability to answer questions that are not only querying visual content but knowledge-intensive and information-seeking. In this study, we introduce InfoSeek, a visual question answering dataset tailored for information-seeking questions that cannot be answered with only common sense knowledge. Using InfoSeek, we analyze various pre-trained visual question answering models and gain insights into their characteristics. Our findings reveal that state-of-the-art pre-trained multi-modal models (e.g., PaLI-X, BLIP2, InstructBLIP) face challenges in answering visual information-seeking questions, but fine-tuning on the InfoSeek dataset elicits models to use fine-grained knowledge that was learned during pre-training. Furthermore, we show that accurate visual entity recognition can be used to improve performance on InfoSeek by retrieving relevant documents, showing a significant space for improvement.

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Human-in-the-loop Evaluation for Early Misinformation Detection: A Case Study of COVID-19 Treatments
Ethan Mendes | Yang Chen | Wei Xu | Alan Ritter
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We present a human-in-the-loop evaluation framework for fact-checking novel misinformation claims and identifying social media messages that support them. Our approach extracts check-worthy claims, which are aggregated and ranked for review. Stance classifiers are then used to identify tweets supporting novel misinformation claims, which are further reviewed to determine whether they violate relevant policies. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we develop a baseline system based on modern NLP methods for human-in-the-loop fact-checking in the domain of COVID-19 treatments. We make our data and detailed annotation guidelines available to support the evaluation of human-in-the-loop systems that identify novel misinformation directly from raw user-generated content.

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Frustratingly Easy Label Projection for Cross-lingual Transfer
Yang Chen | Chao Jiang | Alan Ritter | Wei Xu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Translating training data into many languages has emerged as a practical solution for improving cross-lingual transfer. For tasks that involve span-level annotations, such as information extraction or question answering, an additional label projection step is required to map annotated spans onto the translated texts. Recently, a few efforts have utilized a simple mark-then-translate method to jointly perform translation and projection by inserting special markers around the labeled spans in the original sentence. However, as far as we are aware, no empirical analysis has been conducted on how this approach compares to traditional annotation projection based on word alignment. In this paper, we present an extensive empirical study across 57 languages and three tasks (QA, NER, and Event Extraction) to evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of both methods, filling an important gap in the literature. Experimental results show that our optimized version of mark-then-translate, which we call EasyProject, is easily applied to many languages and works surprisingly well, outperforming the more complex word alignment-based methods. We analyze several key factors that affect the end-task performance, and show EasyProject works well because it can accurately preserve label span boundaries after translation. We will publicly release all our code and data.


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Eye Gaze and Self-attention: How Humans and Transformers Attend Words in Sentences
Joshua Bensemann | Alex Peng | Diana Benavides-Prado | Yang Chen | Neset Tan | Paul Michael Corballis | Patricia Riddle | Michael Witbrock
Proceedings of the Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics

Attention describes cognitive processes that are important to many human phenomena including reading. The term is also used to describe the way in which transformer neural networks perform natural language processing. While attention appears to be very different under these two contexts, this paper presents an analysis of the correlations between transformer attention and overt human attention during reading tasks. An extensive analysis of human eye tracking datasets showed that the dwell times of human eye movements were strongly correlated with the attention patterns occurring in the early layers of pre-trained transformers such as BERT. Additionally, the strength of a correlation was not related to the number of parameters within a transformer. This suggests that something about the transformers’ architecture determined how closely the two measures were correlated.

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Prompt-based Conservation Learning for Multi-hop Question Answering
Zhenyun Deng | Yonghua Zhu | Yang Chen | Qianqian Qi | Michael Witbrock | Patricia Riddle
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Multi-hop question answering (QA) requires reasoning over multiple documents to answer a complex question and provide interpretable supporting evidence. However, providing supporting evidence is not enough to demonstrate that a model has performed the desired reasoning to reach the correct answer. Most existing multi-hop QA methods fail to answer a large fraction of sub-questions, even if their parent questions are answered correctly. In this paper, we propose the Prompt-based Conservation Learning (PCL) framework for multi-hop QA, which acquires new knowledge from multi-hop QA tasks while conserving old knowledge learned on single-hop QA tasks, mitigating forgetting. Specifically, we first train a model on existing single-hop QA tasks, and then freeze this model and expand it by allocating additional sub-networks for the multi-hop QA task. Moreover, to condition pre-trained language models to stimulate the kind of reasoning required for specific multi-hop questions, we learn soft prompts for the novel sub-networks to perform type-specific reasoning. Experimental results on the HotpotQA benchmark show that PCL is competitive for multi-hop QA and retains good performance on the corresponding single-hop sub-questions, demonstrating the efficacy of PCL in mitigating knowledge loss by forgetting.


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Model Selection for Cross-lingual Transfer
Yang Chen | Alan Ritter
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transformers that are pre-trained on multilingual corpora, such as, mBERT and XLM-RoBERTa, have achieved impressive cross-lingual transfer capabilities. In the zero-shot transfer setting, only English training data is used, and the fine-tuned model is evaluated on another target language. While this works surprisingly well, substantial variance has been observed in target language performance between different fine-tuning runs, and in the zero-shot setup, no target-language development data is available to select among multiple fine-tuned models. Prior work has relied on English dev data to select among models that are fine-tuned with different learning rates, number of steps and other hyperparameters, often resulting in suboptimal choices. In this paper, we show that it is possible to select consistently better models when small amounts of annotated data are available in auxiliary pivot languages. We propose a machine learning approach to model selection that uses the fine-tuned model’s own internal representations to predict its cross-lingual capabilities. In extensive experiments we find that this method consistently selects better models than English validation data across twenty five languages (including eight low-resource languages), and often achieves results that are comparable to model selection using target language development data.


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An Empirical Study of Pre-trained Transformers for Arabic Information Extraction
Wuwei Lan | Yang Chen | Wei Xu | Alan Ritter
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Multilingual pre-trained Transformers, such as mBERT (Devlin et al., 2019) and XLM-RoBERTa (Conneau et al., 2020a), have been shown to enable effective cross-lingual zero-shot transfer. However, their performance on Arabic information extraction (IE) tasks is not very well studied. In this paper, we pre-train a customized bilingual BERT, dubbed GigaBERT, that is designed specifically for Arabic NLP and English-to-Arabic zero-shot transfer learning. We study GigaBERT’s effectiveness on zero-short transfer across four IE tasks: named entity recognition, part-of-speech tagging, argument role labeling, and relation extraction. Our best model significantly outperforms mBERT, XLM-RoBERTa, and AraBERT (Antoun et al., 2020) in both the supervised and zero-shot transfer settings. We have made our pre-trained models publicly available at: https://github.com/lanwuwei/GigaBERT.


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EntEval: A Holistic Evaluation Benchmark for Entity Representations
Mingda Chen | Zewei Chu | Yang Chen | Karl Stratos | Kevin Gimpel
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Rich entity representations are useful for a wide class of problems involving entities. Despite their importance, there is no standardized benchmark that evaluates the overall quality of entity representations. In this work, we propose EntEval: a test suite of diverse tasks that require nontrivial understanding of entities including entity typing, entity similarity, entity relation prediction, and entity disambiguation. In addition, we develop training techniques for learning better entity representations by using natural hyperlink annotations in Wikipedia. We identify effective objectives for incorporating the contextual information in hyperlinks into state-of-the-art pretrained language models (Peters et al., 2018) and show that they improve strong baselines on multiple EntEval tasks.

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PoMo: Generating Entity-Specific Post-Modifiers in Context
Jun Seok Kang | Robert Logan | Zewei Chu | Yang Chen | Dheeru Dua | Kevin Gimpel | Sameer Singh | Niranjan Balasubramanian
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We introduce entity post-modifier generation as an instance of a collaborative writing task. Given a sentence about a target entity, the task is to automatically generate a post-modifier phrase that provides contextually relevant information about the entity. For example, for the sentence, “Barack Obama, _______, supported the #MeToo movement.”, the phrase “a father of two girls” is a contextually relevant post-modifier. To this end, we build PoMo, a post-modifier dataset created automatically from news articles reflecting a journalistic need for incorporating entity information that is relevant to a particular news event. PoMo consists of more than 231K sentences with post-modifiers and associated facts extracted from Wikidata for around 57K unique entities. We use crowdsourcing to show that modeling contextual relevance is necessary for accurate post-modifier generation. We adapt a number of existing generation approaches as baselines for this dataset. Our results show there is large room for improvement in terms of both identifying relevant facts to include (knowing which claims are relevant gives a >20% improvement in BLEU score), and generating appropriate post-modifier text for the context (providing relevant claims is not sufficient for accurate generation). We conduct an error analysis that suggests promising directions for future research.


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Automatic Knowledge Base Construction using Probabilistic Extraction, Deductive Reasoning, and Human Feedback
Daisy Zhe Wang | Yang Chen | Sean Goldberg | Christan Grant | Kun Li
Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Automatic Knowledge Base Construction and Web-scale Knowledge Extraction (AKBC-WEKEX)