Yang Liu

May refer to several people

Also published as:

Other people with similar names: Yang Janet Liu (Georgetown University; 刘洋), Yang Liu (3M Health Information Systems), Yang Liu (University of Helsinki), Yang Liu (Beijing Language and Culture University), Yang Liu (National University of Defense Technology), Yang Liu (Edinburgh Ph.D., Microsoft), Yang Liu (The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Shenzhen)), Yang Liu (刘扬; Ph.D Purdue; ICSI, Dallas, Facebook, Liulishuo, Amazon), Yang Liu (刘洋; ICT, Tsinghua, Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence), Yang Liu (Microsoft Cognitive Services Research), Yang Liu (Peking University), Yang Liu (Samsung Research Center Beijing), Yang Liu (Tianjin University, China), Yang Liu (Univ. of Michigan, UC Santa Cruz), Yang Liu (Wilfrid Laurier University)


2024

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Step-by-Step: Controlling Arbitrary Style in Text with Large Language Models
Pusheng Liu | Lianwei Wu | Linyong Wang | Sensen Guo | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Recently, the autoregressive framework based on large language models (LLMs) has achieved excellent performance in controlling the generated text to adhere to the required style. These methods guide LLMs through prompt learning to generate target text in an autoregressive manner. However, this manner possesses lower controllability and suffers from the challenge of accumulating errors, where early prediction inaccuracies might influence subsequent word generation. Furthermore, existing prompt-based methods overlook specific region editing, resulting in a deficiency of localized control over input text. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel three-stage prompt-based approach for specific region editing. To alleviate the issue of accumulating errors, we transform the text style transfer task into a text infilling task, guiding the LLMs to modify only a small portion of text within the editing region to achieve style transfer, thus reducing the number of autoregressive iterations. To achieve an effective specific editing region, we adopt both prompt-based and word frequency-based strategies for region selection, subsequently employing a discriminator to validate the efficacy of the selected region. Experiments conducted on several publicly competitive datasets for text style transfer task confirm that our proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance. Keywords: text style transfer, natural language generation, large language models

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Unveiling Project-Specific Bias in Neural Code Models
Zhiming Li | Yanzhou Li | Tianlin Li | Mengnan Du | Bozhi Wu | Yushi Cao | Junzhe Jiang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Deep learning has introduced significant improvements in many software analysis tasks. Although the Large Language Models (LLMs) based neural code models demonstrate commendable performance when trained and tested within the intra-project independent and identically distributed (IID) setting, they often struggle to generalize effectively to real-world inter-project out-of-distribution (OOD) data. In this work, we show that this phenomenon is caused by the heavy reliance on project-specific shortcuts for prediction instead of ground-truth evidence. We propose a Cond-Idf measurement to interpret this behavior, which quantifies the relatedness of a token with a label and its project-specificness. The strong correlation between model behavior and the proposed measurement indicates that without proper regularization, models tend to leverage spurious statistical cues for prediction. Equipped with these observations, we propose a novel bias mitigation mechanism that regularizes the model’s learning behavior by leveraging latent logic relations among samples. Experimental results on two representative program analysis tasks indicate that our mitigation framework can improve both inter-project OOD generalization and adversarial robustness, while not sacrificing accuracy on intra-project IID data.

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Diffusion Glancing Transformer for Parallel Sequence-to-Sequence Learning
Lihua Qian | Mingxuan Wang | Yang Liu | Hao Zhou
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Previously, non-autoregressive models were widely recognized as being superior in generation efficiency but inferior in generation quality due to the challenges of modeling multiple target modalities.To enhance the multi-modality modeling ability, we propose the diffusion glancing transformer, which employs a modality diffusion process and residual glancing sampling.The modality diffusion process is a discrete process that interpolates the multi-modal distribution along the decoding steps, and the residual glancing sampling approach guides the model to continuously learn the remaining modalities across the layers. Experimental results on various machine translation and text generation benchmarks demonstrate that DIFFGLAT achieves better generation accuracy while maintaining fast decoding speed compared with both autoregressive and non-autoregressive models.

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How Does In-Context Learning Help Prompt Tuning?
Simeng Sun | Yang Liu | Dan Iter | Chenguang Zhu | Mohit Iyyer
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EACL 2024

Fine-tuning large language models is becoming ever more impractical due to their rapidly-growing scale. This motivates the use of parameter-efficient adaptation methods such as prompt tuning (PT), which adds a small number of tunable embeddings to an otherwise frozen model, and in-context learning (ICL), in which demonstrations of the task are provided to the model in natural language without any additional training. Recently, (CITATION) propose “instruction prompt tuning” (IPT), which combines PT with ICL by concatenating a natural language demonstration with learned prompt embeddings. While all of these methods have proven effective on different tasks, how they interact with each other remains unexplored. In this paper, we empirically study when and how in-context examples improve prompt tuning by measuring the effectiveness of ICL, PT, and IPT on five text generation tasks with multiple base language models. We observe that (1) IPT does not always outperform PT, and in fact requires the in-context demonstration to be semantically similar to the test input to yield improvements; (2) PT is unstable and exhibits high variance, but combining PT and ICL (into IPT) consistently reduces variance across all five tasks; and(3) prompts learned for a specific source task via PT exhibit positive transfer when paired with in-context examples of a different target task. Our results offer actionable insights on choosing a suitable parameter-efficient adaptation method for a given task.

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PEARL: Prompting Large Language Models to Plan and Execute Actions Over Long Documents
Simeng Sun | Yang Liu | Shuohang Wang | Dan Iter | Chenguang Zhu | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Strategies such as chain-of-thought prompting improve the performance of large language models (LLMs) on complex reasoning tasks by decomposing input examples into intermediate steps. However, it remains unclear how to apply such methods to reason over long input documents, in which both the decomposition and the output of each intermediate step are non-trivial to obtain. In this work, we propose PEARL, a prompting framework to improve reasoning over long documents, which consists of three stages: action mining, plan formulation, and plan execution. More specifically, given a question about a long document, PEARL decomposes the question into a sequence of actions (e.g., SUMMARIZE, FIND_EVENT, FIND_RELATION) and then executes them over the document to obtain the answer. Each stage of PEARL is implemented via zero-shot or few-shot prompting of LLMs (in our work, GPT-4) with minimal human input. We evaluate PEARL on a challenging subset of the QuALITY dataset, which contains questions that require complex reasoning over long narrative texts. PEARL outperforms zero-shot and chain-of-thought prompting on this dataset, and ablation experiments show that each stage of PEARL is critical to its performance. Overall, PEARL is a first step towards leveraging LLMs to reason over long documents.

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Quantifying Stereotypes in Language
Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A stereotype is a generalized perception of a specific group of humans. It is often potentially encoded in human language, which is more common in texts on social issues. Previous works simply define a sentence as stereotypical and anti-stereotypical. However, the stereotype of a sentence may require fine-grained quantification. In this paper, to fill this gap, we quantify stereotypes in language by annotating a dataset. We use the pre-trained language models (PLMs) to learn this dataset to predict stereotypes of sentences. Then, we discuss stereotypes about common social issues such as hate speech, sexism, sentiments, and disadvantaged and advantaged groups. We demonstrate the connections and differences between stereotypes and common social issues, and all four studies validate the general findings of the current studies. In addition, our work suggests that fine-grained stereotype scores are a highly relevant and competitive dimension for research on social issues. The models and datasets used in this paper are available at https://anonymous.4open.science/r/quantifying_stereotypes_in_language.

2023

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T2IAT: Measuring Valence and Stereotypical Biases in Text-to-Image Generation
Jialu Wang | Xinyue Liu | Zonglin Di | Yang Liu | Xin Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

*Warning: This paper contains several contents that may be toxic, harmful, or offensive.*In the last few years, text-to-image generative models have gained remarkable success in generating images with unprecedented quality accompanied by a breakthrough of inference speed. Despite their rapid progress, human biases that manifest in the training examples, particularly with regard to common stereotypical biases, like gender and skin tone, still have been found in these generative models. In this work, we seek to measure more complex human biases exist in the task of text-to-image generations. Inspired by the well-known Implicit Association Test (IAT) from social psychology, we propose a novel Text-to-Image Association Test (T2IAT) framework that quantifies the implicit stereotypes between concepts and valence, and those in the images. We replicate the previously documented bias tests on generative models, including morally neutral tests on flowers and insects as well as demographic stereotypical tests on diverse social attributes. The results of these experiments demonstrate the presence of complex stereotypical behaviors in image generations.

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Modeling Adversarial Attack on Pre-trained Language Models as Sequential Decision Making
Xuanjie Fang | Sijie Cheng | Yang Liu | Wei Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been widely used to underpin various downstream tasks. However, the adversarial attack task has found that PLMs are vulnerable to small perturbations. Mainstream methods adopt a detached two-stage framework to attack without considering the subsequent influence of substitution at each step. In this paper, we formally model the adversarial attack task on PLMs as a sequential decision-making problem, where the whole attack process is sequential with two decision-making problems, i.e., word finder and word substitution. Considering the attack process can only receive the final state without any direct intermediate signals, we propose to use reinforcement learning to find an appropriate sequential attack path to generate adversaries, named SDM-ATTACK. Our experimental results show that SDM-ATTACK achieves the highest attack success rate with a comparable modification rate and semantic similarity to attack fine-tuned BERT. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrate the generalization and transferability of SDM-ATTACK.Resources of this work will be released after this paper’s publication.

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Prompt-Guided Retrieval Augmentation for Non-Knowledge-Intensive Tasks
Zhicheng Guo | Sijie Cheng | Yile Wang | Peng Li | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Retrieval-augmented methods have received increasing attention to support downstream tasks by leveraging useful information from external resources. Recent studies mainly focus on exploring retrieval to solve knowledge-intensive (KI) tasks. However, the potential of retrieval for most non-knowledge-intensive (NKI) tasks remains under-explored. There are two main challenges to leveraging retrieval-augmented methods for NKI tasks: 1) the demand for diverse relevance score functions and 2) the dilemma between training cost and task performance. To address these challenges, we propose a two-stage framework for NKI tasks, named PGRA. In the first stage, we adopt a task-agnostic retriever to build a shared static index and select candidate evidence efficiently. In the second stage, we design a prompt-guided reranker to rerank the nearest evidence according to task-specific relevance for the reader. Experimental results show that PGRA outperforms other state-of-the-art retrieval-augmented methods. Our analyses further investigate the influence factors to model performance and demonstrate the generality of PGRA. The code and model will be released for further research.

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Improving Radiology Summarization with Radiograph and Anatomy Prompts
Jinpeng Hu | Zhihong Chen | Yang Liu | Xiang Wan | Tsung-Hui Chang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The impression is crucial for the referring physicians to grasp key information since it is concluded from the findings and reasoning of radiologists. To alleviate the workload of radiologists and reduce repetitive human labor in impression writing, many researchers have focused on automatic impression generation. However, recent works on this task mainly summarize the corresponding findings and pay less attention to the radiology images. In clinical, radiographs can provide more detailed valuable observations to enhance radiologists’ impression writing, especially for complicated cases. Besides, each sentence in findings usually focuses on single anatomy, such that they only need to be matched to corresponding anatomical regions instead of the whole image, which is beneficial for textual and visual features alignment. Therefore, we propose a novel anatomy-enhanced multimodal model to promote impression generation. In detail, we first construct a set of rules to extract anatomies and put these prompts into each sentence to highlight anatomy characteristics. Then, two separate encoders are applied to extract features from the radiograph and findings. Afterward, we utilize a contrastive learning module to align these two representations at the overall level and use a co-attention to fuse them at the sentence level with the help of anatomy-enhanced sentence representation. The experimental results on two benchmark datasets confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method, which achieves state-of-the-art results.

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Filling the Image Information Gap for VQA: Prompting Large Language Models to Proactively Ask Questions
Ziyue Wang | Chi Chen | Peng Li | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large Language Models (LLMs) demonstrate impressive reasoning ability and the maintenance of world knowledge not only in natural language tasks, but also in some vision-language tasks such as open-domain knowledge-based visual question answering (OK-VQA). As images are invisible to LLMs, researchers convert images to text to engage LLMs into the visual question reasoning procedure. This leads to discrepancies between images and their textual representations presented to LLMs, which consequently impedes final reasoning performance. To fill the information gap and better leverage the reasoning capability, we design a framework that enables LLMs to proactively ask relevant questions to unveil more details in the image, along with filters for refining the generated information. We validate our idea on OK-VQA and A-OKVQA. Our method continuously boosts the performance of baselines methods by an average gain of 2.15% on OK-VQA, and achieves consistent improvements across different LLMs.

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A Black-Box Attack on Code Models via Representation Nearest Neighbor Search
Jie Zhang | Wei Ma | Qiang Hu | Shangqing Liu | Xiaofei Xie | Yves Le Traon | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Existing methods for generating adversarial code examples face several challenges: limted availability of substitute variables, high verification costs for these substitutes, and the creation of adversarial samples with noticeable perturbations. To address these concerns, our proposed approach, RNNS, uses a search seed based on historical attacks to find potential adversarial substitutes. Rather than directly using the discrete substitutes, they are mapped to a continuous vector space using a pre-trained variable name encoder. Based on the vector representation, RNNS predicts and selects better substitutes for attacks. We evaluated the performance of RNNS across six coding tasks encompassing three programming languages: Java, Python, and C. We employed three pre-trained code models (CodeBERT, GraphCodeBERT, and CodeT5) that resulted in a cumulative of 18 victim models. The results demonstrate that RNNS outperforms baselines in terms of ASR and QT. Furthermore, the perturbation of adversarial examples introduced by RNNS is smaller compared to the baselines in terms of the number of replaced variables and the change in variable length. Lastly, our experiments indicate that RNNS is efficient in attacking defended models and can be employed for adversarial training.

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Self-Knowledge Guided Retrieval Augmentation for Large Language Models
Yile Wang | Peng Li | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Large language models (LLMs) have shown superior performance without task-specific fine-tuning. Despite the success, the knowledge stored in the parameters of LLMs could still be incomplete and difficult to update due to the computational costs. As complementary, retrieval-based methods can offer non-parametric world knowledge and improve the performance on tasks such as question answering. However, we find that the retrieved knowledge does not always help and even has a negative impact on original responses occasionally. To better make use of both internal knowledge and external world knowledge, we investigate eliciting the model’s ability to recognize what they know and do not know (which is also called “self-knowledge”) and propose Self-Knowledge guided Retrieval augmentation (SKR), a simple yet effective method which can let LLMs refer to the questions they have previously encountered and adaptively call for external resources when dealing with new questions. We evaluate SKR on multiple datasets and demonstrate that it outperforms chain-of-thought based and fully retrieval-based methods by using either InstructGPT or ChatGPT.

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Using In-Context Learning to Improve Dialogue Safety
Nicholas Meade | Spandana Gella | Devamanyu Hazarika | Prakhar Gupta | Di Jin | Siva Reddy | Yang Liu | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

While large neural-based conversational models have become increasingly proficient dialogue agents, recent work has highlighted safety issues with these systems. For example, these systems can be goaded into generating toxic content, often perpetuating social biases or stereotypes. We investigate a retrieval-based approach for reducing bias and toxicity in responses from chatbots. It uses in-context learning to steer a model towards safer generations. Concretely, to generate a response to an unsafe dialogue context, we retrieve demonstrations of safe responses to similar dialogue contexts. We find our method performs competitively with existing approaches to dialogue safety without requiring training. We also show, using automatic and human evaluation, that reductions in toxicity obtained using our approach are not at the cost engagingness or coherency. Finally, we note our method can be used in compliment to existing dialogue safety approaches, such as RLHF.

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DialGuide: Aligning Dialogue Model Behavior with Developer Guidelines
Prakhar Gupta | Yang Liu | Di Jin | Behnam Hedayatnia | Spandana Gella | Sijia Liu | Patrick Lange | Julia Hirschberg | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Dialogue models are able to generate coherent and fluent responses, but they can still be challenging to control and may produce non-engaging, unsafe results. This unpredictability diminishes user trust and can hinder the use of the models in the real world. To address this, we introduce DialGuide, a novel framework for controlling dialogue model behavior using natural language rules, or guidelines. These guidelines provide information about the context they are applicable to and what should be included in the response, allowing the models to generate responses that are more closely aligned with the developer’s expectations and intent. We evaluate DialGuide on three tasks in open-domain dialogue response generation: guideline selection, response generation, and response entailment verification. Our dataset contains 10,737 positive and 15,467 negative dialogue context-response-guideline triplets across two domains - chit-chat and safety. We provide baseline models for the tasks and benchmark their performance. We also demonstrate that DialGuide is effective in the dialogue safety domain, producing safe and engaging responses that follow developer guidelines.

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CCL23-Eval 任务7总结报告: 汉语学习者文本纠错(Overview of CCL23-Eval Task: Chinese Learner Text Correction)
Hongxiang Chang | Yang Liu | Meng Xu | Yingying Wang | Cunliang Kong | Liner Yang | Yang Erhong | Maosong Sun | Gaoqi Rao | Renfen Hu | Zhenghao Liu | 鸿翔 常 | 洋 刘 | 萌 徐 | 莹莹 王 | 存良 孔 | 麟儿 杨 | 尔弘 杨 | 茂松 孙 | 高琦 饶 | 韧奋 胡 | 正皓 刘
Proceedings of the 22nd Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: Evaluations)

“汉语学习者文本纠错(Chinese Learner Text Correction)评测比赛,是依托于第22届中国计算语言学大会举办的技术评测。针对汉语学习者文本,设置了多维度汉语学习者文本纠错和中文语法错误检测两个赛道。结合人工智能技术的不断进步和发展的时代背景,在两赛道下分别设置开放和封闭任务。开放任务允许使用大模型。以汉语学习者文本多维标注语料库YACLC为基础建设评测数据集,建立基于多参考答案的评价标准,构建基准评测框架,进一步推动汉语学习者文本纠错研究的发展。共38支队伍报名参赛,其中5支队伍成绩优异并提交了技术报告。”

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Failures Pave the Way: Enhancing Large Language Models through Tuning-free Rule Accumulation
Zeyuan Yang | Peng Li | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large Language Models (LLMs) have showcased impressive performance. However, due to their inability to capture relationships among samples, these frozen LLMs inevitably keep repeating similar mistakes. In this work, we propose our Tuning-free Rule Accumulation (TRAN) framework, which guides LLMs in improving their performance by learning from previous mistakes. Considering data arrives sequentially, LLMs gradually accumulate rules from incorrect cases, forming a rule collection. These rules are then utilized by the LLMs to avoid making similar mistakes when processing subsequent inputs. Moreover, the rules remain independent of the primary prompts, seamlessly complementing prompt design strategies. Experimentally, we show that TRAN improves over recent baselines by a large margin.

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CESAR: Automatic Induction of Compositional Instructions for Multi-turn Dialogs
Taha Aksu | Devamanyu Hazarika | Shikib Mehri | Seokhwan Kim | Dilek Hakkani-Tur | Yang Liu | Mahdi Namazifar
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Instruction-based multitasking has played a critical role in the success of large language models (LLMs) in multi-turn dialog applications. While publicly available LLMs have shown promising performance, when exposed to complex instructions with multiple constraints, they lag against state-of-the-art models like ChatGPT. In this work, we hypothesize that the availability of large-scale complex demonstrations is crucial in bridging this gap. Focusing on dialog applications, we propose a novel framework, CESAR, that unifies a large number of dialog tasks in the same format and allows programmatic induction of complex instructions without any manual effort. We apply CESAR on InstructDial, a benchmark for instruction-based dialog tasks. We further enhance InstructDial with new datasets and tasks and utilize CESAR to induce complex tasks with compositional instructions. This results in a new benchmark called InstructDial++, which includes 63 datasets with 86 basic tasks and 68 composite tasks. Through rigorous experiments, we demonstrate the scalability of CESAR in providing rich instructions. Models trained on InstructDial++ can follow compositional prompts, such as prompts that ask for multiple stylistic constraints.

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Learn and Consolidate: Continual Adaptation for Zero-Shot and Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Kaiyu Huang | Peng Li | Junpeng Liu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although existing multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) models have demonstrated remarkable performance to handle multiple translation directions in a single model and achieved zero-shot translation between language pairs unseen in training, they still suffer from relatively poor translation qualities for some language pairs. A practical scenario is that how to continually update MNMT models for both supervised and zero-shot translations when limited new data arrives. To this end, we propose a two-stage approach that encourages original models to acquire language-agnostic multilingual representations from new data, and preserves the model architecture without introducing parameters. Experimental results and further analysis demonstrate that our method can efficiently improve performance of existing MNMT models in translation directions where they are initially weak, and mitigates the degeneration in the original well-performing translation directions, offering flexibility in the real-world scenario.

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Task-Oriented Conversational Modeling with Subjective Knowledge Track in DSTC11
Seokhwan Kim | Spandana Gella | Chao Zhao | Di Jin | Alexandros Papangelis | Behnam Hedayatnia | Yang Liu | Dilek Z Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of The Eleventh Dialog System Technology Challenge

Conventional Task-oriented Dialogue (TOD) Systems rely on domain-specific APIs/DBs or external factual knowledge to create responses. In DSTC11 track 5, we aims to provide a new challenging task to accommodate subjective user requests (e.g.,”Is the WIFI reliable?” or “Does the restaurant have a good atmosphere?” into TOD. We release a benchmark dataset, which contains subjective knowledge-seeking dialogue contexts and manually annotated responses that are grounded in subjective knowledge sources. The challenge track received a total of 48 entries from 14 participating teams.

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DaMSTF: Domain Adversarial Learning Enhanced Meta Self-Training for Domain Adaptation
Menglong Lu | Zhen Huang | Yunxiang Zhao | Zhiliang Tian | Yang Liu | Dongsheng Li
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Self-training emerges as an important research line on domain adaptation. By taking the model’s prediction as the pseudo labels of the unlabeled data, self-training bootstraps the model with pseudo instances in the target domain. However, the prediction errors of pseudo labels (label noise) challenge the performance of self-training. To address this problem, previous approaches only use reliable pseudo instances, i.e., pseudo instances with high prediction confidence, to retrain the model. Although these strategies effectively reduce the label noise, they are prone to miss the hard examples. In this paper, we propose a new self-training framework for domain adaptation, namely Domain adversarial learning enhanced Self-Training Framework (DaMSTF). Firstly, DaMSTF involves meta-learning to estimate the importance of each pseudo instance, so as to simultaneously reduce the label noise and preserve hard examples. Secondly, we design a meta constructor for constructing the meta-validation set, which guarantees the effectiveness of the meta-learning module by improving the quality of the meta-validation set. Thirdly, we find that the meta-learning module suffers from the training guidance vanish- ment and tends to converge to an inferior optimal. To this end, we employ domain adversarial learning as a heuristic neural network initialization method, which can help the meta-learning module converge to a better optimal. Theoretically and experimentally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DaMSTF. On the cross-domain sentiment classification task, DaMSTF improves the performance of BERT with an average of nearly 4%.

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KILM: Knowledge Injection into Encoder-Decoder Language Models
Yan Xu | Mahdi Namazifar | Devamanyu Hazarika | Aishwarya Padmakumar | Yang Liu | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Large pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been shown to retain implicit knowledge within their parameters. To enhance this implicit knowledge, we propose Knowledge Injection into Language Models (KILM), a novel approach that injects entity-related knowledge into encoder-decoder PLMs, via a generative knowledge infilling objective through continued pre-training. This is done without architectural modifications to the PLMs or adding additional parameters. Experimental results over a suite of knowledge-intensive tasks spanning numerous datasets show that KILM enables models to retain more knowledge and hallucinate less while preserving their original performance on general NLU and NLG tasks. KILM also demonstrates improved zero-shot performances on tasks such as entity disambiguation, outperforming state-of-the-art models having 30x more parameters.

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Multi-target Backdoor Attacks for Code Pre-trained Models
Yanzhou Li | Shangqing Liu | Kangjie Chen | Xiaofei Xie | Tianwei Zhang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Backdoor attacks for neural code models have gained considerable attention due to the advancement of code intelligence. However, most existing works insert triggers into task-specific data for code-related downstream tasks, thereby limiting the scope of attacks. Moreover, the majority of attacks for pre-trained models are designed for understanding tasks. In this paper, we propose task-agnostic backdoor attacks for code pre-trained models. Our backdoored model is pre-trained with two learning strategies (i.e., Poisoned Seq2Seq learning and token representation learning) to support the multi-target attack of downstream code understanding and generation tasks. During the deployment phase, the implanted backdoors in the victim models can be activated by the designed triggers to achieve the targeted attack. We evaluate our approach on two code understanding tasks and three code generation tasks over seven datasets. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our approach effectively and stealthily attacks code-related downstream tasks.

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Continual Knowledge Distillation for Neural Machine Translation
Yuanchi Zhang | Peng Li | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While many parallel corpora are not publicly accessible for data copyright, data privacy and competitive differentiation reasons, trained translation models are increasingly available on open platforms. In this work, we propose a method called continual knowledge distillation to take advantage of existing translation models to improve one model of interest. The basic idea is to sequentially transfer knowledge from each trained model to the distilled model. Extensive experiments on Chinese-English and German-English datasets show that our method achieves significant and consistent improvements over strong baselines under both homogeneous and heterogeneous trained model settings and is robust to malicious models.

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Weakly Supervised Vision-and-Language Pre-training with Relative Representations
Chi Chen | Peng Li | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Weakly supervised vision-and-language pre-training (WVLP), which learns cross-modal representations with limited cross-modal supervision, has been shown to effectively reduce the data cost of pre-training while maintaining decent performance on downstream tasks. However, current WVLP methods use only local descriptions of images, i.e., object tags, as cross-modal anchors to construct weakly-aligned image-text pairs for pre-training. This affects the data quality and thus the effectiveness of pre-training. In this paper, we propose to directly take a small number of aligned image-text pairs as anchors, and represent each unaligned image and text by its similarities to these anchors, i.e., relative representations. We build a WVLP framework based on the relative representations, namely RELIT, which collects high-quality weakly-aligned image-text pairs from large-scale image-only and text-only data for pre-training through relative representation-based retrieval and generation. Experiments on four downstream tasks show that RELIT achieves new state-of-the-art results under the weakly supervised setting.

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Bridging the Gap between Decision and Logits in Decision-based Knowledge Distillation for Pre-trained Language Models
Qinhong Zhou | Zonghan Yang | Peng Li | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Conventional knowledge distillation (KD) methods require access to the internal information of teachers, e.g., logits. However, such information may not always be accessible for large pre-trained language models (PLMs). In this work, we focus on decision-based KD for PLMs, where only teacher decisions (i.e., top-1 labels) are accessible. Considering the information gap between logits and decisions, we propose a novel method to estimate logits from the decision distributions. Specifically, decision distributions can be both derived as a function of logits theoretically and estimated with test-time data augmentation empirically. By combining the theoretical and empirical estimations of the decision distributions together, the estimation of logits can be successfully reduced to a simple root-finding problem. Extensive experiments show that our method significantly outperforms strong baselines on both natural language understanding and machine reading comprehension datasets.

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Generating Structured Pseudo Labels for Noise-resistant Zero-shot Video Sentence Localization
Minghang Zheng | Shaogang Gong | Hailin Jin | Yuxin Peng | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Video sentence localization aims to locate moments in an unstructured video according to a given natural language query. A main challenge is the expensive annotation costs and the annotation bias. In this work, we study video sentence localization in a zero-shot setting, which learns with only video data without any annotation. Existing zero-shot pipelines usually generate event proposals and then generate a pseudo query for each event proposal. However, their event proposals are obtained via visual feature clustering, which is query-independent and inaccurate; and the pseudo-queries are short or less interpretable. Moreover, existing approaches ignores the risk of pseudo-label noise when leveraging them in training. To address the above problems, we propose a Structure-based Pseudo Label generation (SPL), which first generate free-form interpretable pseudo queries before constructing query-dependent event proposals by modeling the event temporal structure. To mitigate the effect of pseudo-label noise, we propose a noise-resistant iterative method that repeatedly re-weight the training sample based on noise estimation to train a grounding model and correct pseudo labels. Experiments on the ActivityNet Captions and Charades-STA datasets demonstrate the advantages of our approach. Code can be found at https://github.com/minghangz/SPL.

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An Extensible Plug-and-Play Method for Multi-Aspect Controllable Text Generation
Xuancheng Huang | Zijun Liu | Peng Li | Tao Li | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, multi-aspect controllable text generation that controls the generated text in multiple aspects (e.g., sentiment, topic, and keywords) has attracted increasing attention. Although methods based on parameter efficient tuning like prefix-tuning could achieve multi-aspect controlling in a plug-and-play way, the mutual interference of multiple prefixes leads to significant degeneration of constraints and limits their extensibility to training-time unseen aspect combinations. In this work, we provide a theoretical lower bound for the interference and empirically found that the interference grows with the number of layers where prefixes are inserted. Based on these analyses, we propose using trainable gates to normalize the intervention of prefixes to restrain the growing interference. As a result, controlling training-time unseen combinations of aspects can be realized by simply concatenating corresponding plugins such that new constraints can be extended at a lower cost. In addition, we propose a unified way to process both categorical and free-form constraints. Experiments on text generation and machine translation demonstrate the superiority of our approach over baselines on constraint accuracy, text quality, and extensibility.

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Knowledge Transfer in Incremental Learning for Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Kaiyu Huang | Peng Li | Jin Ma | Ting Yao | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In the real-world scenario, a longstanding goal of multilingual neural machine translation (MNMT) is that a single model can incrementally adapt to new language pairs without accessing previous training data. In this scenario, previous studies concentrate on overcoming catastrophic forgetting while lacking encouragement to learn new knowledge from incremental language pairs, especially when the incremental language is not related to the set of original languages. To better acquire new knowledge, we propose a knowledge transfer method that can efficiently adapt original MNMT models to diverse incremental language pairs. The method flexibly introduces the knowledge from an external model into original models, which encourages the models to learn new language pairs, completing the procedure of knowledge transfer. Moreover, all original parameters are frozen to ensure that translation qualities on original language pairs are not degraded. Experimental results show that our method can learn new knowledge from diverse language pairs incrementally meanwhile maintaining performance on original language pairs, outperforming various strong baselines in incremental learning for MNMT.

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KG-FLIP: Knowledge-guided Fashion-domain Language-Image Pre-training for E-commerce
Qinjin Jia | Yang Liu | Daoping Wu | Shaoyuan Xu | Huidong Liu | Jinmiao Fu | Roland Vollgraf | Bryan Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 5: Industry Track)

Various Vision-Language Pre-training (VLP) models (e.g., CLIP, BLIP) have sprung up and dramatically advanced the benchmarks for public general-domain datasets (e.g., COCO, Flickr30k). Such models usually learn the cross-modal alignment from large-scale well-aligned image-text datasets without leveraging external knowledge. Adapting these models to downstream applications in specific domains like fashion requires fine-grained in-domain image-text corpus, which are usually less semantically aligned and in small scale that requires efficient pre-training strategies. In this paper, we propose a knowledge-guided fashion-domain language-image pre-training (FLIP) framework that focuses on learning fine-grained representations in e-commerce domain and utilizes external knowledge (i.e., product attribute schema), to improve the pre-training efficiency. Experiments demonstrate that FLIP outperforms previous state-of-the-art VLP models on Amazon data and on the Fashion-Gen dataset by large margins. FLIP has been successfully deployed in the Amazon catalog system to backfill missing attributes and improve the customer shopping experience.

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Unified Contextual Query Rewriting
Yingxue Zhou | Jie Hao | Mukund Rungta | Yang Liu | Eunah Cho | Xing Fan | Yanbin Lu | Vishal Vasudevan | Kellen Gillespie | Zeynab Raeesy
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 5: Industry Track)

Query rewriting (QR) is an important technique for user friction (i.e. recovering ASR error or system error) reduction and contextual carryover (i.e. ellipsis and co-reference) in conversational AI systems. Recently, generation-based QR models have achieved promising results on these two tasks separately. Although these two tasks have many similarities such as they both use the previous dialogue along with the current request as model input, there is no unified model to solve them jointly. To this end, we propose a unified contextual query rewriting model that unifies QR for both reducing friction and contextual carryover purpose. Moreover, we involve multiple auxiliary tasks such as trigger prediction and NLU interpretation tasks to boost the performance of the rewrite. We leverage the text-to-text unified framework which uses independent tasks with weighted loss to account for task importance. Then we propose new unified multitask learning strategies including a sequential model which outputs one sentence for multi-tasks, and a hybrid model where some tasks are independent and some tasks are sequentially generated. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed unified learning methods.

2022

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Inducer-tuning: Connecting Prefix-tuning and Adapter-tuning
Yifan Chen | Devamanyu Hazarika | Mahdi Namazifar | Yang Liu | Di Jin | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Prefix-tuning, or more generally continuous prompt tuning, has become an essential paradigm of parameter-efficient transfer learning. Using a large pre-trained language model (PLM), prefix-tuning can obtain strong performance by training only a small portion of parameters. In this paper, we propose to understand and further develop prefix-tuning through the kernel lens. Specifically, we make an analogy between prefixes and inducing variables in kernel methods and hypothesize that prefixes serving as inducing variables would improve their overall mechanism. From the kernel estimator perspective, we suggest a new variant of prefix-tuning—inducer-tuning, which shares the exact mechanism as prefix-tuning while leveraging the residual form found in adapter-tuning. This mitigates the initialization issue in prefix-tuning. Through comprehensive empirical experiments on natural language understanding and generation tasks, we demonstrate that inducer-tuning can close the performance gap between prefix-tuning and fine-tuning.

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Towards a Unified Multi-Dimensional Evaluator for Text Generation
Ming Zhong | Yang Liu | Da Yin | Yuning Mao | Yizhu Jiao | Pengfei Liu | Chenguang Zhu | Heng Ji | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multi-dimensional evaluation is the dominant paradigm for human evaluation in Natural Language Generation (NLG), i.e., evaluating the generated text from multiple explainable dimensions, such as coherence and fluency. However, automatic evaluation in NLG is still dominated by similarity-based metrics, and we lack a reliable framework for a more comprehensive evaluation of advanced models. In this paper, we propose a unified multi-dimensional evaluator UniEval for NLG. We re-frame NLG evaluation as a Boolean Question Answering (QA) task, and by guiding the model with different questions, we can use one evaluator to evaluate from multiple dimensions. Furthermore, thanks to the unified Boolean QA format, we are able to introduce an intermediate learning phase that enables UniEval to incorporate external knowledge from multiple related tasks and gain further improvement. Experiments on three typical NLG tasks show that UniEval correlates substantially better with human judgments than existing metrics. Specifically, compared to the top-performing unified evaluators, UniEval achieves a 23% higher correlation on text summarization, and over 43% on dialogue response generation. Also, UniEval demonstrates a strong zero-shot learning ability for unseen evaluation dimensions and tasks. Source code, data, and all pre-trained evaluators are available at https://github.com/maszhongming/UniEval.

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A Template-based Method for Constrained Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Peng Li | Zhixing Tan | Zhaopeng Tu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Machine translation systems are expected to cope with various types of constraints in many practical scenarios. While neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved strong performance in unconstrained cases, it is non-trivial to impose pre-specified constraints into the translation process of NMT models. Although many approaches have been proposed to address this issue, most existing methods can not satisfy the following three desiderata at the same time: (1) high translation quality, (2) high match accuracy, and (3) low latency. In this work, we propose a template-based method that can yield results with high translation quality and match accuracy and the inference speed of our method is comparable with unconstrained NMT models. Our basic idea is to rearrange the generation of constrained and unconstrained tokens through a template. Our method does not require any changes in the model architecture and the decoding algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed template-based approach can outperform several representative baselines in both lexically and structurally constrained translation tasks.

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ExPUNations: Augmenting Puns with Keywords and Explanations
Jiao Sun | Anjali Narayan-Chen | Shereen Oraby | Alessandra Cervone | Tagyoung Chung | Jing Huang | Yang Liu | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The tasks of humor understanding and generation are challenging and subjective even for humans, requiring commonsense and real-world knowledge to master. Puns, in particular, add the challenge of fusing that knowledge with the ability to interpret lexical-semantic ambiguity. In this paper, we present the ExPUNations (ExPUN) dataset, in which we augment an existing dataset of puns with detailed crowdsourced annotations of keywords denoting the most distinctive words that make the text funny, pun explanations describing why the text is funny, and fine-grained funniness ratings. This is the first humor dataset with such extensive and fine-grained annotations specifically for puns. Based on these annotations, we propose two tasks: explanation generation to aid with pun classification and keyword-conditioned pun generation, to challenge the current state-of-the-art natural language understanding and generation models’ ability to understand and generate humor. We showcase that the annotated keywords we collect are helpful for generating better novel humorous texts in human evaluation, and that our natural language explanations can be leveraged to improve both the accuracy and robustness of humor classifiers.

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Context-Situated Pun Generation
Jiao Sun | Anjali Narayan-Chen | Shereen Oraby | Shuyang Gao | Tagyoung Chung | Jing Huang | Yang Liu | Nanyun Peng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Previous work on pun generation commonly begins with a given pun word (a pair of homophones for heterographic pun generation and a polyseme for homographic pun generation) and seeks to generate an appropriate pun. While this may enable efficient pun generation, we believe that a pun is most entertaining if it fits appropriately within a given context, e.g., a given situation or dialogue. In this work, we propose a new task, context-situated pun generation, where a specific context represented by a set of keywords is provided, and the task is to first identify suitable pun words that are appropriate for the context, then generate puns based on the context keywords and the identified pun words. We collect a new dataset, CUP (Context-sitUated Pun), containing 4.5k tuples of context words and pun pairs. Based on the new data and setup, we propose a pipeline system for context-situated pun generation, including a pun word retrieval module that identifies suitable pun words for a given context, and a pun generation module that generates puns from context keywords and pun words. Human evaluation shows that 69% of our top retrieved pun words can be used to generate context-situated puns, and our generation module yields successful puns 31% of the time given a plausible tuple of context words and pun pair, almost tripling the yield of a state-of-the-art pun generation model. With an end-to-end evaluation, our pipeline system with the top-1 retrieved pun pair for a given context can generate successful puns 40% of the time, better than all other modeling variations but 32% lower than the human success rate. This highlights the difficulty of the task, and encourages more research in this direction.

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ParaTag: A Dataset of Paraphrase Tagging for Fine-Grained Labels, NLG Evaluation, and Data Augmentation
Shuohang Wang | Ruochen Xu | Yang Liu | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Paraphrase identification has been formulated as a binary classification task to decide whether two sentences hold a paraphrase relationship. Existing paraphrase datasets only annotate a binary label for each sentence pair. However, after a systematical analysis of existing paraphrase datasets, we found that the degree of paraphrase cannot be well characterized by a single binary label. And the criteria of paraphrase are not even consistent within the same dataset. We hypothesize that such issues would limit the effectiveness of paraphrase models trained on these data. To this end, we propose a novel fine-grained paraphrase annotation schema that labels the minimum spans of tokens in a sentence that don’t have the corresponding paraphrases in the other sentence. Under this setting, we frame paraphrasing as a sequence tagging task. We collect 30k sentence pairs in English with the new annotation schema, resulting in the ParaTag dataset. In addition to reporting baseline results on ParaTag using state-of-art language models, we show that ParaTag is especially useful for training an automatic scorer for language generation evaluation. Finally, we train a paraphrase generation model from ParaTag and achieve better data augmentation performance on the GLUE benchmark than other public paraphrasing datasets.

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Entropy-Based Vocabulary Substitution for Incremental Learning in Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Kaiyu Huang | Peng Li | Jin Ma | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In a practical real-world scenario, the longstanding goal is that a universal multilingual translation model can be incrementally updated when new language pairs arrive. Specifically, the initial vocabulary only covers some of the words in new languages, which hurts the translation quality for incremental learning. Although existing approaches attempt to address this issue by replacing the original vocabulary with a rebuilt vocabulary or constructing independent language-specific vocabularies, these methods can not meet the following three demands simultaneously: (1) High translation quality for original and incremental languages, (2) low cost for model training, (3) low time overhead for preprocessing. In this work, we propose an entropy-based vocabulary substitution (EVS) method that just needs to walk through new language pairs for incremental learning in a large-scale multilingual data updating while remaining the size of the vocabulary. Our method has access to learn new knowledge from updated training samples incrementally while keeping high translation quality for original language pairs, alleviating the issue of catastrophic forgetting. Results of experiments show that EVS can achieve better performance and save excess overhead for incremental learning in the multilingual machine translation task.

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End-to-End Unsupervised Vision-and-Language Pre-training with Referring Expression Matching
Chi Chen | Peng Li | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recently there has been an emerging interest in unsupervised vision-and-language pre-training (VLP) that learns multimodal representations without parallel image-caption data. These pioneering works significantly reduce the cost of VLP on data collection and achieve promising results compared to supervised VLP. However, existing unsupervised VLP methods take as input pre-extracted region-based visual features from external object detectors, which both limits flexibility and reduces computational efficiency. In this paper, we explore end-to-end unsupervised VLP with a vision encoder to directly encode images. The vision encoder is pre-trained on image-only data and jointly optimized during multimodal pre-training. To further enhance the learned cross-modal features, we propose a novel pre-training task that predicts which patches contain an object referred to in natural language from the encoded visual features. Extensive experiments on four vision-and-language tasks show that our approach outperforms previous unsupervised VLP methods and obtains new state-of-the-art results.

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Unsupervised Multi-Granularity Summarization
Ming Zhong | Yang Liu | Suyu Ge | Yuning Mao | Yizhu Jiao | Xingxing Zhang | Yichong Xu | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng | Jiawei Han
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Text summarization is a user-preference based task, i.e., for one document, users often have different priorities for the summary. As a key aspect of customization in summarization, granularity is used to measure the semantic coverage between the summary and source document. However, developing systems that can generate summaries with customizable semantic coverage is still an under-explored topic. In this paper, we propose the first unsupervised multi-granularity summarization framework, GranuSum. We take events as the basic semantic units of the source documents and propose to rank these events by their salience. We also develop a model to summarize input documents with given events as anchors and hints. By inputting different numbers of events, GranuSum is capable of producing multi-granular summaries in an unsupervised manner. Meanwhile, we annotate a new benchmark GranuDUC that contains multiple summaries at different granularities for each document cluster. Experimental results confirm the substantial superiority of GranuSum on multi-granularity summarization over strong baselines. Furthermore, by exploiting the event information, GranuSum also exhibits state-of-the-art performance under the conventional unsupervised abstractive setting.

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Task Compass: Scaling Multi-task Pre-training with Task Prefix
Zhuosheng Zhang | Shuohang Wang | Yichong Xu | Yuwei Fang | Wenhao Yu | Yang Liu | Hai Zhao | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Leveraging task-aware annotated data as supervised signals to assist with self-supervised learning on large-scale unlabeled data has become a new trend in pre-training language models. Existing studies show that multi-task learning with large-scale supervised tasks suffers from negative effects across tasks. To tackle the challenge, we propose a task prefix guided multi-task pre-training framework to explore the relationships among tasks. We conduct extensive experiments on 40 datasets, which show that our model can not only serve as the strong foundation backbone for a wide range of tasks but also be feasible as a probing tool for analyzing task relationships. The task relationships reflected by the prefixes align transfer learning performance between tasks. They also suggest directions for data augmentation with complementary tasks, which help our model achieve human-parity results on commonsense reasoning leaderboards. Code is available at https://github.com/cooelf/CompassMTL.

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AdaPrompt: Adaptive Model Training for Prompt-based NLP
Yulong Chen | Yang Liu | Li Dong | Shuohang Wang | Chenguang Zhu | Michael Zeng | Yue Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Prompt-based learning, with its capability to tackle zero-shot and few-shot NLP tasks, has gained much attention in the community.The main idea is to bridge the gap between NLP downstream tasks and language modeling (LM), by mapping these tasks into natural language prompts, which are then filled by pre-trained language models (PLMs).However, for prompt learning, there are still two salient gaps between NLP tasks and pretraining.First, prompt information is not necessarily sufficiently present during LM pre-training. Second, task-specific data are not necessarily well represented during pre-training. We address these two issues by proposing AdaPrompt, adaptively retrieving external data for continual pretraining of PLMs by making use of both task and prompt characteristics. In addition, we make use of knowledge in Natural Language Inference models for deriving adaptive verbalizers.Experimental results on five NLP benchmarks show that AdaPrompt can improve over standard PLMs in few-shot settings. In addition, in zero-shot settings, our method outperforms standard prompt-based methods by up to 26.35% relative error reduction.

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Analyzing the Limits of Self-Supervision in Handling Bias in Language
Lisa Bauer | Karthik Gopalakrishnan | Spandana Gella | Yang Liu | Mohit Bansal | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Prompting inputs with natural language task descriptions has emerged as a popular mechanism to elicit reasonably accurate outputs from large-scale generative language models with little to no in-context supervision. This also helps gain insight into how well language models capture the semantics of a wide range of downstream tasks purely from self-supervised pre-training on massive corpora of unlabeled text. Such models have naturally also been exposed to a lot of undesirable content like racist and sexist language and there is only some work on awareness of models along these dimensions. In this paper, we define and comprehensively evaluate how well such language models capture the semantics of four tasks for bias: diagnosis, identification, extraction and rephrasing. We define three broad classes of task descriptions for these tasks: statement, question, and completion, with numerous lexical variants within each class. We study the efficacy of prompting for each task using these classes and the null task description across several decoding methods and few-shot examples. Our analyses indicate that language models are capable of performing these tasks to widely varying degrees across different bias dimensions, such as gender and political affiliation. We believe our work is an important step towards unbiased language models by quantifying the limits of current self-supervision objectives at accomplishing such sociologically challenging tasks.

2021

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Exploring Word Segmentation and Medical Concept Recognition for Chinese Medical Texts
Yang Liu | Yuanhe Tian | Tsung-Hui Chang | Song Wu | Xiang Wan | Yan Song
Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

Chinese word segmentation (CWS) and medical concept recognition are two fundamental tasks to process Chinese electronic medical records (EMRs) and play important roles in downstream tasks for understanding Chinese EMRs. One challenge to these tasks is the lack of medical domain datasets with high-quality annotations, especially medical-related tags that reveal the characteristics of Chinese EMRs. In this paper, we collected a Chinese EMR corpus, namely, ACEMR, with human annotations for Chinese word segmentation and EMR-related tags. On the ACEMR corpus, we run well-known models (i.e., BiLSTM, BERT, and ZEN) and existing state-of-the-art systems (e.g., WMSeg and TwASP) for CWS and medical concept recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the necessity of building a dedicated medical dataset and show that models that leverage extra resources achieve the best performance for both tasks, which provides certain guidance for future studies on model selection in the medical domain.

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Decompose, Fuse and Generate: A Formation-Informed Method for Chinese Definition Generation
Hua Zheng | Damai Dai | Lei Li | Tianyu Liu | Zhifang Sui | Baobao Chang | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper, we tackle the task of Definition Generation (DG) in Chinese, which aims at automatically generating a definition for a word. Most existing methods take the source word as an indecomposable semantic unit. However, in parataxis languages like Chinese, word meanings can be composed using the word formation process, where a word (“桃花”, peach-blossom) is formed by formation components (“桃”, peach; “花”, flower) using a formation rule (Modifier-Head). Inspired by this process, we propose to enhance DG with word formation features. We build a formation-informed dataset, and propose a model DeFT, which Decomposes words into formation features, dynamically Fuses different features through a gating mechanism, and generaTes word definitions. Experimental results show that our method is both effective and robust.

2020

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On the Inference Calibration of Neural Machine Translation
Shuo Wang | Zhaopeng Tu | Shuming Shi | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Confidence calibration, which aims to make model predictions equal to the true correctness measures, is important for neural machine translation (NMT) because it is able to offer useful indicators of translation errors in the generated output. While prior studies have shown that NMT models trained with label smoothing are well-calibrated on the ground-truth training data, we find that miscalibration still remains a severe challenge for NMT during inference due to the discrepancy between training and inference. By carefully designing experiments on three language pairs, our work provides in-depth analyses of the correlation between calibration and translation performance as well as linguistic properties of miscalibration and reports a number of interesting findings that might help humans better analyze, understand and improve NMT models. Based on these observations, we further propose a new graduated label smoothing method that can improve both inference calibration and translation performance.

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A Hybrid System for NLPTEA-2020 CGED Shared Task
Meiyuan Fang | Kai Fu | Jiping Wang | Yang Liu | Jin Huang | Yitao Duan
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

This paper introduces our system at NLPTEA2020 shared task for CGED, which is able to detect, locate, identify and correct grammatical errors in Chinese writings. The system consists of three components: GED, GEC, and post processing. GED is an ensemble of multiple BERT-based sequence labeling models for handling GED tasks. GEC performs error correction. We exploit a collection of heterogenous models, including Seq2Seq, GECToR and a candidate generation module to obtain correction candidates. Finally in the post processing stage, results from GED and GEC are fused to form the final outputs. We tune our models to lean towards optimizing precision, which we believe is more crucial in practice. As a result, among the six tracks in the shared task, our system performs well in the correction tracks: measured in F1 score, we rank first, with the highest precision, in the TOP3 correction track and third in the TOP1 correction track, also with the highest precision. Ours are among the top 4 to 6 in other tracks, except for FPR where we rank 12. And our system achieves the highest precisions among the top 10 submissions at IDENTIFICATION and POSITION tracks.

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Beyond Domain APIs: Task-oriented Conversational Modeling with Unstructured Knowledge Access
Seokhwan Kim | Mihail Eric | Karthik Gopalakrishnan | Behnam Hedayatnia | Yang Liu | Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Proceedings of the 21th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue

Most prior work on task-oriented dialogue systems are restricted to a limited coverage of domain APIs, while users oftentimes have domain related requests that are not covered by the APIs. In this paper, we propose to expand coverage of task-oriented dialogue systems by incorporating external unstructured knowledge sources. We define three sub-tasks: knowledge-seeking turn detection, knowledge selection, and knowledge-grounded response generation, which can be modeled individually or jointly. We introduce an augmented version of MultiWOZ 2.1, which includes new out-of-API-coverage turns and responses grounded on external knowledge sources. We present baselines for each sub-task using both conventional and neural approaches. Our experimental results demonstrate the need for further research in this direction to enable more informative conversational systems.

2019

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Improving Back-Translation with Uncertainty-based Confidence Estimation
Shuo Wang | Yang Liu | Chao Wang | Huanbo Luan | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

While back-translation is simple and effective in exploiting abundant monolingual corpora to improve low-resource neural machine translation (NMT), the synthetic bilingual corpora generated by NMT models trained on limited authentic bilingual data are inevitably noisy. In this work, we propose to quantify the confidence of NMT model predictions based on model uncertainty. With word- and sentence-level confidence measures based on uncertainty, it is possible for back-translation to better cope with noise in synthetic bilingual corpora. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks show that uncertainty-based confidence estimation significantly improves the performance of back-translation.

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Iterative Dual Domain Adaptation for Neural Machine Translation
Jiali Zeng | Yang Liu | Jinsong Su | Yubing Ge | Yaojie Lu | Yongjing Yin | Jiebo Luo
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Previous studies on the domain adaptation for neural machine translation (NMT) mainly focus on the one-pass transferring out-of-domain translation knowledge to in-domain NMT model. In this paper, we argue that such a strategy fails to fully extract the domain-shared translation knowledge, and repeatedly utilizing corpora of different domains can lead to better distillation of domain-shared translation knowledge. To this end, we propose an iterative dual domain adaptation framework for NMT. Specifically, we first pretrain in-domain and out-of-domain NMT models using their own training corpora respectively, and then iteratively perform bidirectional translation knowledge transfer (from in-domain to out-of-domain and then vice versa) based on knowledge distillation until the in-domain NMT model convergences. Furthermore, we extend the proposed framework to the scenario of multiple out-of-domain training corpora, where the above-mentioned transfer is performed sequentially between the in-domain and each out-of-domain NMT models in the ascending order of their domain similarities. Empirical results on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework.

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Learning to Copy for Automatic Post-Editing
Xuancheng Huang | Yang Liu | Huanbo Luan | Jingfang Xu | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Automatic post-editing (APE), which aims to correct errors in the output of machine translation systems in a post-processing step, is an important task in natural language processing. While recent work has achieved considerable performance gains by using neural networks, how to model the copying mechanism for APE remains a challenge. In this work, we propose a new method for modeling copying for APE. To better identify translation errors, our method learns the representations of source sentences and system outputs in an interactive way. These representations are used to explicitly indicate which words in the system outputs should be copied. Finally, CopyNet (Gu et.al., 2016) can be combined with our method to place the copied words in correct positions in post-edited translations. Experiments on the datasets of the WMT 2016-2017 APE shared tasks show that our approach outperforms all best published results.

2018

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Hierarchical Attention Based Position-Aware Network for Aspect-Level Sentiment Analysis
Lishuang Li | Yang Liu | AnQiao Zhou
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Aspect-level sentiment analysis aims to identify the sentiment of a specific target in its context. Previous works have proved that the interactions between aspects and the contexts are important. On this basis, we also propose a succinct hierarchical attention based mechanism to fuse the information of targets and the contextual words. In addition, most existing methods ignore the position information of the aspect when encoding the sentence. In this paper, we argue that the position-aware representations are beneficial to this task. Therefore, we propose a hierarchical attention based position-aware network (HAPN), which introduces position embeddings to learn the position-aware representations of sentences and further generate the target-specific representations of contextual words. The experimental results on SemEval 2014 dataset show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

2017

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The HIT-SCIR System for End-to-End Parsing of Universal Dependencies
Wanxiang Che | Jiang Guo | Yuxuan Wang | Bo Zheng | Huaipeng Zhao | Yang Liu | Dechuan Teng | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2017 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

This paper describes our system (HIT-SCIR) for the CoNLL 2017 shared task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies. Our system includes three pipelined components: tokenization, Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging and dependency parsing. We use character-based bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) networks for both tokenization and POS tagging. Afterwards, we employ a list-based transition-based algorithm for general non-projective parsing and present an improved Stack-LSTM-based architecture for representing each transition state and making predictions. Furthermore, to parse low/zero-resource languages and cross-domain data, we use a model transfer approach to make effective use of existing resources. We demonstrate substantial gains against the UDPipe baseline, with an average improvement of 3.76% in LAS of all languages. And finally, we rank the 4th place on the official test sets.

2016

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A Bilingual Discourse Corpus and Its Applications
Yang Liu | Jiajun Zhang | Chengqing Zong | Yating Yang | Xi Zhou
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Existing discourse research only focuses on the monolingual languages and the inconsistency between languages limits the power of the discourse theory in multilingual applications such as machine translation. To address this issue, we design and build a bilingual discource corpus in which we are currently defining and annotating the bilingual elementary discourse units (BEDUs). The BEDUs are then organized into hierarchical structures. Using this discourse style, we have annotated nearly 20K LDC sentences. Finally, we design a bilingual discourse based method for machine translation evaluation and show the effectiveness of our bilingual discourse annotations.

2015

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Learning Tag Embeddings and Tag-specific Composition Functions in Recursive Neural Network
Qiao Qian | Bo Tian | Minlie Huang | Yang Liu | Xuan Zhu | Xiaoyan Zhu
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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The Discovery of Natural Typing Annotations: User-produced Potential Chinese Word Delimiters
Dakui Zhang | Yu Mao | Yang Liu | Hanshi Wang | Chuyuan Wei | Shiping Tang
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Computing Semantic Text Similarity Using Rich Features
Yang Liu | Chengjie Sun | Lei Lin | Xiaolong Wang | Yuming Zhao
Proceedings of the 29th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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yiGou: A Semantic Text Similarity Computing System Based on SVM
Yang Liu | Chengjie Sun | Lei Lin | Xiaolong Wang
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)

2014

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Exploring Fine-grained Entity Type Constraints for Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Yang Liu | Kang Liu | Liheng Xu | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

2013

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Attribute Relation Extraction from Template-inconsistent Semi-structured Text by Leveraging Site-level Knowledge
Yang Liu | Fang Liu | Siwei Lai | Kang Liu | Guangyou Zhou | Jun Zhao
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

2012

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Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Joint Segmentation and POS-Tagging
Yang Liu | Yue Zhang
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

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