Yangqiaoyu Zhou


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Learning to Ignore Adversarial Attacks
Yiming Zhang | Yangqiaoyu Zhou | Samuel Carton | Chenhao Tan
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Despite the strong performance of current NLP models, they can be brittle against adversarial attacks. To enable effective learning against adversarial inputs, we introduce the use of rationale models that can explicitly learn to ignore attack tokens. We find that the rationale models can successfully ignore over 90% of attack tokens. This approach leads to consistent sizable improvements (~10%) over baseline models in robustness on three datasets for both BERT and RoBERTa, and also reliably outperforms data augmentation with adversarial examples alone. In many cases, we find that our method is able to close the gap between model performance on a clean test set and an attacked test set and hence reduce the effect of adversarial attacks.

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FLamE: Few-shot Learning from Natural Language Explanations
Yangqiaoyu Zhou | Yiming Zhang | Chenhao Tan
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural language explanations have the potential to provide rich information that in principle guides model reasoning. Yet, recent work by Lampinen et al. has shown limited utility of natural language explanations in improving classification. To effectively learn from explanations, we present FLamE, a two-stage few-shot learning framework that first generates explanations using GPT-3, and then fine-tunes a smaller model (e.g., RoBERTa) with generated explanations. Our experiments on natural language inference demonstrate effectiveness over strong baselines, increasing accuracy by 17.6% over GPT-3 Babbage and 5.7% over GPT-3 Davinci in e-SNLI.Despite improving classification performance, human evaluation surprisingly reveals that the majority of generated explanations does not adequately justify classification decisions. Additional analyses point to the important role of label-specific cues (e.g., “not know” for the neutral label) in generated explanations.


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Investigating the Effect of Natural Language Explanations on Out-of-Distribution Generalization in Few-shot NLI
Yangqiaoyu Zhou | Chenhao Tan
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Insights from Negative Results in NLP

Although neural models have shown strong performance in datasets such as SNLI, they lack the ability to generalize out-of-distribution (OOD). In this work, we formulate a few-shot learning setup and examine the effects of natural language explanations on OOD generalization. We leverage the templates in the HANS dataset and construct templated natural language explanations for each template. Although generated explanations show competitive BLEU scores against ground truth explanations, they fail to improve prediction performance. We further show that generated explanations often hallucinate information and miss key elements that indicate the label.