Yanzeng Li


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LLMaAA: Making Large Language Models as Active Annotators
Ruoyu Zhang | Yanzeng Li | Yongliang Ma | Ming Zhou | Lei Zou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Prevalent supervised learning methods in natural language processing (NLP) are notoriously data-hungry, which demand large amounts of high-quality annotated data. In practice, acquiring such data is a costly endeavor. Recently, the superior few-shot performance of large language models (LLMs) has propelled the development of dataset generation, where the training data are solely synthesized from LLMs. However, such an approach usually suffers from low-quality issues, and requires orders of magnitude more labeled data to achieve satisfactory performance. To fully exploit the potential of LLMs and make use of massive unlabeled data, we propose LLMaAA, which takes LLMs as annotators and puts them into an active learning loop to determine what to annotate efficiently. To learn robustly with pseudo labels, we optimize both the annotation and training processes: (1) we draw k-NN examples from a small demonstration pool as in-context examples, and (2) we adopt the example reweighting technique to assign training samples with learnable weights. Compared with previous approaches, LLMaAA features both efficiency and reliability. We conduct experiments and analysis on two classic NLP tasks, named entity recognition and relation extraction. With LLMaAA, task-specific models trained from LLM-generated labels can outperform the teacher within only hundreds of annotated examples, which is much more cost-effective than other baselines.

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AtTGen: Attribute Tree Generation for Real-World Attribute Joint Extraction
Yanzeng Li | Bingcong Xue | Ruoyu Zhang | Lei Zou
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Attribute extraction aims to identify attribute names and the corresponding values from descriptive texts, which is the foundation for extensive downstream applications such as knowledge graph construction, search engines, and e-Commerce. In previous studies, attribute extraction is generally treated as a classification problem for predicting attribute types or a sequence tagging problem for labeling attribute values, where two paradigms, i.e., closed-world and open-world assumption, are involved. However, both of these paradigms have limitations in terms of real-world applications. And prior studies attempting to integrate these paradigms through ensemble, pipeline, and co-training models, still face challenges like cascading errors, high computational overhead, and difficulty in training. To address these existing problems, this paper presents Attribute Tree, a unified formulation for real-world attribute extraction application, where closed-world, open-world, and semi-open attribute extraction tasks are modeled uniformly. Then a text-to-tree generation model, AtTGen, is proposed to learn annotations from different scenarios efficiently and consistently. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed paradigm well covers various scenarios for real-world applications, and the model achieves state-of-the-art, outperforming existing methods by a large margin on three datasets. Our code, pretrained model, and datasets are available at https://github.com/lsvih/AtTGen.

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A Novel Table-to-Graph Generation Approach for Document-Level Joint Entity and Relation Extraction
Ruoyu Zhang | Yanzeng Li | Lei Zou
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Document-level relation extraction (DocRE) aims to extract relations among entities within a document, which is crucial for applications like knowledge graph construction. Existing methods usually assume that entities and their mentions are identified beforehand, which falls short of real-world applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose TaG, a novel table-to-graph generation model for joint extractionof entities and relations at document-level. To enhance the learning of task dependencies, TaG induces a latent graph among mentions, with different types of edges indicating different task information, which is further broadcast with a relational graph convolutional network. To alleviate the error propagation problem, we adapt the hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm to back-propagate task information at decoding stage. Experiments on the benchmark dataset, DocRED, demonstrate that TaG surpasses previous methods by a large margin and achieves state-of-the-art results.


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Enhancing Chinese Pre-trained Language Model via Heterogeneous Linguistics Graph
Yanzeng Li | Jiangxia Cao | Xin Cong | Zhenyu Zhang | Bowen Yu | Hongsong Zhu | Tingwen Liu
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Chinese pre-trained language models usually exploit contextual character information to learn representations, while ignoring the linguistics knowledge, e.g., word and sentence information. Hence, we propose a task-free enhancement module termed as Heterogeneous Linguistics Graph (HLG) to enhance Chinese pre-trained language models by integrating linguistics knowledge. Specifically, we construct a hierarchical heterogeneous graph to model the characteristics linguistics structure of Chinese language, and conduct a graph-based method to summarize and concretize information on different granularities of Chinese linguistics hierarchies. Experimental results demonstrate our model has the ability to improve the performance of vanilla BERT, BERTwwm and ERNIE 1.0 on 6 natural language processing tasks with 10 benchmark datasets. Further, the detailed experimental analyses have proven that this kind of modelization achieves more improvements compared with previous strong baseline MWA. Meanwhile, our model introduces far fewer parameters (about half of MWA) and the training/inference speed is about 7x faster than MWA.

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Crake: Causal-Enhanced Table-Filler for Question Answering over Large Scale Knowledge Base
Minhao Zhang | Ruoyu Zhang | Yanzeng Li | Lei Zou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Semantic parsing solves knowledge base (KB) question answering (KBQA) by composing a KB query, which generally involves node extraction (NE) and graph composition (GC) to detect and connect related nodes in a query. Despite the strong causal effects between NE and GC, previous works fail to directly model such causalities in their pipeline, hindering the learning of subtask correlations. Also, the sequence-generation process for GC in previous works induces ambiguity and exposure bias, which further harms accuracy. In this work, we formalize semantic parsing into two stages. In the first stage (graph structure generation), we propose a causal-enhanced table-filler to overcome the issues in sequence-modelling and to learn the internal causalities. In the second stage (relation extraction), an efficient beam-search algorithm is presented to scale complex queries on large-scale KBs. Experiments on LC-QuAD 1.0 indicate that our method surpasses previous state-of-the-arts by a large margin (17%) while remaining time and space efficiency.


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FITAnnotator: A Flexible and Intelligent Text Annotation System
Yanzeng Li | Bowen Yu | Li Quangang | Tingwen Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Demonstrations

In this paper, we introduce FITAnnotator, a generic web-based tool for efficient text annotation. Benefiting from the fully modular architecture design, FITAnnotator provides a systematic solution for the annotation of a variety of natural language processing tasks, including classification, sequence tagging and semantic role annotation, regardless of the language. Three kinds of interfaces are developed to annotate instances, evaluate annotation quality and manage the annotation task for annotators, reviewers and managers, respectively. FITAnnotator also gives intelligent annotations by introducing task-specific assistant to support and guide the annotators based on active learning and incremental learning strategies. This assistant is able to effectively update from the annotator feedbacks and easily handle the incremental labeling scenarios.


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Enhancing Pre-trained Chinese Character Representation with Word-aligned Attention
Yanzeng Li | Bowen Yu | Xue Mengge | Tingwen Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most Chinese pre-trained models take character as the basic unit and learn representation according to character’s external contexts, ignoring the semantics expressed in the word, which is the smallest meaningful utterance in Chinese. Hence, we propose a novel word-aligned attention to exploit explicit word information, which is complementary to various character-based Chinese pre-trained language models. Specifically, we devise a pooling mechanism to align the character-level attention to the word level and propose to alleviate the potential issue of segmentation error propagation by multi-source information fusion. As a result, word and character information are explicitly integrated at the fine-tuning procedure. Experimental results on five Chinese NLP benchmark tasks demonstrate that our method achieves significant improvements against BERT, ERNIE and BERT-wwm.