Yasmin Moslem


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Adaptive Machine Translation with Large Language Models
Yasmin Moslem | Rejwanul Haque | John D. Kelleher | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

Consistency is a key requirement of high-quality translation. It is especially important to adhere to pre-approved terminology and adapt to corrected translations in domain-specific projects. Machine translation (MT) has achieved significant progress in the area of domain adaptation. However, real-time adaptation remains challenging. Large-scale language models (LLMs) have recently shown interesting capabilities of in-context learning, where they learn to replicate certain input-output text generation patterns, without further fine-tuning. By feeding an LLM at inference time with a prompt that consists of a list of translation pairs, it can then simulate the domain and style characteristics. This work aims to investigate how we can utilize in-context learning to improve real-time adaptive MT. Our extensive experiments show promising results at translation time. For example, GPT-3.5 can adapt to a set of in-domain sentence pairs and/or terminology while translating a new sentence. We observe that the translation quality with few-shot in-context learning can surpass that of strong encoder-decoder MT systems, especially for high-resource languages. Moreover, we investigate whether we can combine MT from strong encoder-decoder models with fuzzy matches, which can further improve translation quality, especially for less supported languages. We conduct our experiments across five diverse language pairs, namely English-to-Arabic (EN-AR), English-to-Chinese (EN-ZH), English-to-French (EN-FR), English-to-Kinyarwanda (EN-RW), and English-to-Spanish (EN-ES).

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Domain Terminology Integration into Machine Translation: Leveraging Large Language Models
Yasmin Moslem | Gianfranco Romani | Mahdi Molaei | John D. Kelleher | Rejwanul Haque | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper discusses the methods that we used for our submissions to the WMT 2023 Terminology Shared Task for German-to-English (DE-EN), English-to-Czech (EN-CS), and Chinese-to-English (ZH-EN) language pairs. The task aims to advance machine translation (MT) by challenging participants to develop systems that accurately translate technical terms, ultimately enhancing communication and understanding in specialised domains. To this end, we conduct experiments that utilise large language models (LLMs) for two purposes: generating synthetic bilingual terminology-based data, and post-editing translations generated by an MT model through incorporating pre-approved terms. Our system employs a four-step process: (i) using an LLM to generate bilingual synthetic data based on the provided terminology, (ii) fine-tuning a generic encoder-decoder MT model, with a mix of the terminology-based synthetic data generated in the first step and a randomly sampled portion of the original generic training data, (iii) generating translations with the fine-tuned MT model, and (iv) finally, leveraging an LLM for terminology-constrained automatic post-editing of the translations that do not include the required terms. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach in improving the integration of pre-approved terms into translations. The number of terms incorporated into the translations of the blind dataset increases from an average of 36.67% with the generic model to an average of 72.88% by the end of the process. In other words, successful utilisation of terms nearly doubles across the three language pairs.


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Translation Word-Level Auto-Completion: What Can We Achieve Out of the Box?
Yasmin Moslem | Rejwanul Haque | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

Research on Machine Translation (MT) has achieved important breakthroughs in several areas. While there is much more to be done in order to build on this success, we believe that the language industry needs better ways to take full advantage of current achievements. Due to a combination of factors, including time, resources, and skills, businesses tend to apply pragmatism into their AI workflows. Hence, they concentrate more on outcomes, e.g. delivery, shipping, releases, and features, and adopt high-level working production solutions, where possible. Among the features thought to be helpful for translators are sentence-level and word-level translation auto-suggestion and auto-completion. Suggesting alternatives can inspire translators and limit their need to refer to external resources, which hopefully boosts their productivity. This work describes our submissions to WMT’s shared task on word-level auto-completion, for the Chinese-to-English, English-to-Chinese, German-to-English, and English-to-German language directions. We investigate the possibility of using pre-trained models and out-of-the-box features from available libraries. We employ random sampling to generate diverse alternatives, which reveals good results. Furthermore, we introduce our open-source API, based on CTranslate2, to serve translations, auto-suggestions, and auto-completions.

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Domain-Specific Text Generation for Machine Translation
Yasmin Moslem | Rejwanul Haque | John Kelleher | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 15th biennial conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

Preservation of domain knowledge from the source to target is crucial in any translation workflow. It is common in the translation industry to receive highly-specialized projects, where there is hardly any parallel in-domain data. In such scenarios where there is insufficient in-domain data to fine-tune Machine Translation (MT) models, producing translations that are consistent with the relevant context is challenging. In this work, we propose leveraging state-of-the-art pretrained language models (LMs) for domain-specific data augmentation for MT, simulating the domain characteristics of either (a) a small bilingual dataset, or (b) the monolingual source text to be translated. Combining this idea with back-translation, we can generate huge amounts of synthetic bilingual in-domain data for both use cases. For our investigation, we used the state-of-the-art MT architecture, Transformer. We employed mixed fine-tuning to train models that significantly improve translation of in-domain texts. More specifically, our proposed methods achieved improvements of approximately 5-6 BLEU and 2-3 BLEU, respectively, on Arabic-to-English and English-to-Arabic language pairs. Furthermore, the outcome of human evaluation corroborates the automatic evaluation results.

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Preparing an endangered language for the digital age: The Case of Judeo-Spanish
Alp Öktem | Rodolfo Zevallos | Yasmin Moslem | Özgür Güneş Öztürk | Karen Gerson Şarhon
Proceedings of the Workshop on Resources and Technologies for Indigenous, Endangered and Lesser-resourced Languages in Eurasia within the 13th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We develop machine translation and speech synthesis systems to complement the efforts of revitalizing Judeo-Spanish, the exiled language of Sephardic Jews, which survived for centuries, but now faces the threat of extinction in the digital age. Building on resources created by the Sephardic community of Turkey and elsewhere, we create corpora and tools that would help preserve this language for future generations. For machine translation, we first develop a Spanish to Judeo-Spanish rule-based machine translation system, in order to generate large volumes of synthetic parallel data in the relevant language pairs: Turkish, English and Spanish. Then, we train baseline neural machine translation engines using this synthetic data and authentic parallel data created from translations by the Sephardic community. For text-to-speech synthesis, we present a 3.5-hour single speaker speech corpus for building a neural speech synthesis engine. Resources, model weights and online inference engines are shared publicly.


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Arabisc: Context-Sensitive Neural Spelling Checker
Yasmin Moslem | Rejwanul Haque | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

Traditional statistical approaches to spelling correction usually consist of two consecutive processes — error detection and correction — and they are generally computationally intensive. Current state-of-the-art neural spelling correction models usually attempt to correct spelling errors directly over an entire sentence, which, as a consequence, lacks control of the process, e.g. they are prone to overcorrection. In recent years, recurrent neural networks (RNNs), in particular long short-term memory (LSTM) hidden units, have proven increasingly popular and powerful models for many natural language processing (NLP) problems. Accordingly, we made use of a bidirectional LSTM language model (LM) for our context-sensitive spelling detection and correction model which is shown to have much control over the correction process. While the use of LMs for spelling checking and correction is not new to this line of NLP research, our proposed approach makes better use of the rich neighbouring context, not only from before the word to be corrected, but also after it, via a dual-input deep LSTM network. Although in theory our proposed approach can be applied to any language, we carried out our experiments on Arabic, which we believe adds additional value given the fact that there are limited linguistic resources readily available in Arabic in comparison to many languages. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods are effective in both improving the quality of correction suggestions and minimising overcorrection.

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The ADAPT System Description for the STAPLE 2020 English-to-Portuguese Translation Task
Rejwanul Haque | Yasmin Moslem | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

This paper describes the ADAPT Centre’s submission to STAPLE (Simultaneous Translation and Paraphrase for Language Education) 2020, a shared task of the 4th Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation (WNGT), for the English-to-Portuguese translation task. In this shared task, the participants were asked to produce high-coverage sets of plausible translations given English prompts (input source sentences). We present our English-to-Portuguese machine translation (MT) models that were built applying various strategies, e.g. data and sentence selection, monolingual MT for generating alternative translations, and combining multiple n-best translations. Our experiments show that adding the aforementioned techniques to the baseline yields an excellent performance in the English-to-Portuguese translation task.

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Terminology-Aware Sentence Mining for NMT Domain Adaptation: ADAPT’s Submission to the Adap-MT 2020 English-to-Hindi AI Translation Shared Task
Rejwanul Haque | Yasmin Moslem | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON): Adap-MT 2020 Shared Task

This paper describes the ADAPT Centre’s submission to the Adap-MT 2020 AI Translation Shared Task for English-to-Hindi. The neural machine translation (NMT) systems that we built to translate AI domain texts are state-of-the-art Transformer models. In order to improve the translation quality of our NMT systems, we made use of both in-domain and out-of-domain data for training and employed different fine-tuning techniques for adapting our NMT systems to this task, e.g. mixed fine-tuning and on-the-fly self-training. For this, we mined parallel sentence pairs and monolingual sentences from large out-of-domain data, and the mining process was facilitated through automatic extraction of terminology from the in-domain data. This paper outlines the experiments we carried out for this task and reports the performance of our NMT systems on the evaluation test set.