Yasumasa Onoe


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Can LMs Learn New Entities from Descriptions? Challenges in Propagating Injected Knowledge
Yasumasa Onoe | Michael Zhang | Shankar Padmanabhan | Greg Durrett | Eunsol Choi
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained language models (LMs) are used for knowledge intensive tasks like question answering, but their knowledge gets continuously outdated as the world changes. Prior work has studied targeted updates to LMs, injecting individual facts and evaluating whether the model learns these facts while not changing predictions on other contexts. We take a step forward and study LMs’ abilities to make inferences based on injected facts (or propagate those facts): for example, after learning that something is a TV show, does an LM predict that you can watch it? We study this with two cloze-style tasks: an existing dataset of real-world sentences about novel entities (ECBD) as well as a new controlled benchmark with manually designed templates requiring varying levels of inference about injected knowledge. Surprisingly, we find that existing methods for updating knowledge (gradient-based fine-tuning and modifications of this approach) show little propagation of injected knowledge. These methods improve performance on cloze instances only when there is lexical overlap between injected facts and target inferences. Yet, prepending entity definitions in an LM’s context improves performance across all settings, suggesting that there is substantial headroom for parameter-updating approaches for knowledge injection.

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Jamp: Controlled Japanese Temporal Inference Dataset for Evaluating Generalization Capacity of Language Models
Tomoki Sugimoto | Yasumasa Onoe | Hitomi Yanaka
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 4: Student Research Workshop)

Natural Language Inference (NLI) tasks involving temporal inference remain challenging for pre-trained language models (LMs). Although various datasets have been created for this task, they primarily focus on English and do not address the need for resources in other languages. It is unclear whether current LMs realize the generalization capacity for temporal inference across languages. In this paper, we present Jamp, a Japanese NLI benchmark focused on temporal inference. Our dataset includes a range of temporal inference patterns, which enables us to conduct fine-grained analysis. To begin the data annotation process, we create diverse inference templates based on the formal semantics test suites. We then automatically generate diverse NLI examples by using the Japanese case frame dictionary and well-designed templates while controlling the distribution of inference patterns and gold labels. We evaluate the generalization capacities of monolingual/multilingual LMs by splitting our dataset based on tense fragments (i.e., temporal inference patterns). Our findings demonstrate that LMs struggle with specific linguistic phenomena, such as habituality, indicating that there is potential for the development of more effective NLI models across languages.


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Intermediate Entity-based Sparse Interpretable Representation Learning
Diego Garcia-Olano | Yasumasa Onoe | Joydeep Ghosh | Byron Wallace
Proceedings of the Fifth BlackboxNLP Workshop on Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Interpretable entity representations (IERs) are sparse embeddings that are “human-readable” in that dimensions correspond to fine-grained entity types and values are predicted probabilities that a given entity is of the corresponding type. These methods perform well in zero-shot and low supervision settings. Compared to standard dense neural embeddings, such interpretable representations may permit analysis and debugging. However, while fine-tuning sparse, interpretable representations improves accuracy on downstream tasks, it destroys the semantics of the dimensions which were enforced in pre-training. Can we maintain the interpretable semantics afforded by IERs while improving predictive performance on downstream tasks? Toward this end, we propose Intermediate enTity-based Sparse Interpretable Representation Learning (ItsIRL). ItsIRL realizes improved performance over prior IERs on biomedical tasks, while maintaining “interpretability” generally and their ability to support model debugging specifically. The latter is enabled in part by the ability to perform “counterfactual” fine-grained entity type manipulation, which we explore in this work. Finally, we propose a method to construct entity type based class prototypes for revealing global semantic properties of classes learned by our model. Code for pre-training and experiments will be made publicly available.

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Entity Cloze By Date: What LMs Know About Unseen Entities
Yasumasa Onoe | Michael Zhang | Eunsol Choi | Greg Durrett
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Language models (LMs) are typically trained once on a large-scale corpus and used for years without being updated. However, in a dynamic world, new entities constantly arise. We propose a framework to analyze what LMs can infer about new entities that did not exist when the LMs were pretrained. We derive a dataset of entities indexed by their origination date and paired with their English Wikipedia articles, from which we can find sentences about each entity. We evaluate LMs’ perplexity on masked spans within these sentences. We show that models more informed about the entities, such as those with access to a textual definition of them, achieve lower perplexity on this benchmark. Our experimental results demonstrate that making inferences about new entities remains difficult for LMs. Given its wide coverage on entity knowledge and temporal indexing, our dataset can be used to evaluate LMs and techniques designed to modify or extend their knowledge. Our automatic data collection pipeline can be easily used to continually update our benchmark.


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Modeling Fine-Grained Entity Types with Box Embeddings
Yasumasa Onoe | Michael Boratko | Andrew McCallum | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Neural entity typing models typically represent fine-grained entity types as vectors in a high-dimensional space, but such spaces are not well-suited to modeling these types’ complex interdependencies. We study the ability of box embeddings, which embed concepts as d-dimensional hyperrectangles, to capture hierarchies of types even when these relationships are not defined explicitly in the ontology. Our model represents both types and entity mentions as boxes. Each mention and its context are fed into a BERT-based model to embed that mention in our box space; essentially, this model leverages typological clues present in the surface text to hypothesize a type representation for the mention. Box containment can then be used to derive both the posterior probability of a mention exhibiting a given type and the conditional probability relations between types themselves. We compare our approach with a vector-based typing model and observe state-of-the-art performance on several entity typing benchmarks. In addition to competitive typing performance, our box-based model shows better performance in prediction consistency (predicting a supertype and a subtype together) and confidence (i.e., calibration), demonstrating that the box-based model captures the latent type hierarchies better than the vector-based model does.

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Biomedical Interpretable Entity Representations
Diego Garcia-Olano | Yasumasa Onoe | Ioana Baldini | Joydeep Ghosh | Byron Wallace | Kush Varshney
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Contemporary NLP Modeling in Six Comprehensive Programming Assignments
Greg Durrett | Jifan Chen | Shrey Desai | Tanya Goyal | Lucas Kabela | Yasumasa Onoe | Jiacheng Xu
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Teaching NLP

We present a series of programming assignments, adaptable to a range of experience levels from advanced undergraduate to PhD, to teach students design and implementation of modern NLP systems. These assignments build from the ground up and emphasize full-stack understanding of machine learning models: initially, students implement inference and gradient computation by hand, then use PyTorch to build nearly state-of-the-art neural networks using current best practices. Topics are chosen to cover a wide range of modeling and inference techniques that one might encounter, ranging from linear models suitable for industry applications to state-of-the-art deep learning models used in NLP research. The assignments are customizable, with constrained options to guide less experienced students or open-ended options giving advanced students freedom to explore. All of them can be deployed in a fully autogradable fashion, and have collectively been tested on over 300 students across several semesters.


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Interpretable Entity Representations through Large-Scale Typing
Yasumasa Onoe | Greg Durrett
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

In standard methodology for natural language processing, entities in text are typically embedded in dense vector spaces with pre-trained models. The embeddings produced this way are effective when fed into downstream models, but they require end-task fine-tuning and are fundamentally difficult to interpret. In this paper, we present an approach to creating entity representations that are human readable and achieve high performance on entity-related tasks out of the box. Our representations are vectors whose values correspond to posterior probabilities over fine-grained entity types, indicating the confidence of a typing model’s decision that the entity belongs to the corresponding type. We obtain these representations using a fine-grained entity typing model, trained either on supervised ultra-fine entity typing data (Choi et al. 2018) or distantly-supervised examples from Wikipedia. On entity probing tasks involving recognizing entity identity, our embeddings used in parameter-free downstream models achieve competitive performance with ELMo- and BERT-based embeddings in trained models. We also show that it is possible to reduce the size of our type set in a learning-based way for particular domains. Finally, we show that these embeddings can be post-hoc modified through a small number of rules to incorporate domain knowledge and improve performance.


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Learning to Denoise Distantly-Labeled Data for Entity Typing
Yasumasa Onoe | Greg Durrett
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Distantly-labeled data can be used to scale up training of statistical models, but it is typically noisy and that noise can vary with the distant labeling technique. In this work, we propose a two-stage procedure for handling this type of data: denoise it with a learned model, then train our final model on clean and denoised distant data with standard supervised training. Our denoising approach consists of two parts. First, a filtering function discards examples from the distantly labeled data that are wholly unusable. Second, a relabeling function repairs noisy labels for the retained examples. Each of these components is a model trained on synthetically-noised examples generated from a small manually-labeled set. We investigate this approach on the ultra-fine entity typing task of Choi et al. (2018). Our baseline model is an extension of their model with pre-trained ELMo representations, which already achieves state-of-the-art performance. Adding distant data that has been denoised with our learned models gives further performance gains over this base model, outperforming models trained on raw distant data or heuristically-denoised distant data.