Lifelong learning (LL) is an important ability for NLP models to learn new tasks continuously. Architecture-based approaches are reported to be effective implementations for LL models. However, it is non-trivial to extend previous approaches to domain incremental LL scenarios since they either require access to task identities in the testing phase or cannot handle samples from unseen tasks. In this paper, we propose Diana: a dynamic architecture-based lifelong learning model that tries to learn a sequence of tasks with a prompt-enhanced language model. Four types of hierarchically organized prompts are used in Diana to capture knowledge from different granularities. Specifically, we dedicate task-level prompts to capture task-specific knowledge to retain high LL performances and maintain instance-level prompts to learn knowledge shared across input samples to improve the model’s generalization performance. Moreover, we dedicate separate prompts to explicitly model unseen tasks and introduce a set of prompt key vectors to facilitate knowledge sharing between tasks. Extensive experiments demonstrate that Diana outperforms state-of-the-art LL models, especially in handling unseen tasks.
Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is essential for reliable and trustworthy machine learning. Recent multi-modal OOD detection leverages textual information from in-distribution (ID) class names for visual OOD detection, yet it currently neglects the rich contextual information of ID classes. Large language models (LLMs) encode a wealth of world knowledge and can be prompted to generate descriptive features for each class. Indiscriminately using such knowledge causes catastrophic damage to OOD detection due to LLMs’ hallucinations, as is observed by our analysis. In this paper, we propose to apply world knowledge to enhance OOD detection performance through selective generation from LLMs. Specifically, we introduce a consistency-based uncertainty calibration method to estimate the confidence score of each generation. We further extract visual objects from each image to fully capitalize on the aforementioned world knowledge. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art.
Real-world data often have an open long-tailed distribution, and building a unified QA model supporting various tasks is vital for practical QA applications. However, it is non-trivial to extend previous QA approaches since they either require access to seen tasks of adequate samples or do not explicitly model samples from unseen tasks. In this paper, we define Open Long-Tailed QA (OLTQA) as learning from long-tailed distributed data and optimizing performance over seen and unseen QA tasks. We propose an OLTQA model that encourages knowledge sharing between head, tail and unseen tasks, and explicitly mines knowledge from a large pre-trained language model (LM).Specifically, we organize our model through a pool of fine-grained components and dynamically combine these components for an input to facilitate knowledge sharing.A retrieve-then-rerank frame is further introduced to select in-context examples, which guild the LM to generate text that express knowledge for QA tasks. Moreover, a two-stage training approach is introduced to pre-train the framework by knowledge distillation (KD) from the LM and then jointly train the frame and a QA model through an adaptive mutual KD method. On a large-scale OLTQA dataset we curate from 43 existing QA datasets, our model consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art.
Continual relation learning aims to continually train a model on new data to learn incessantly emerging novel relations while avoiding catastrophically forgetting old relations. Some pioneering work has proved that storing a handful of historical relation examples in episodic memory and replaying them in subsequent training is an effective solution for such a challenging problem. However, these memory-based methods usually suffer from overfitting the few memorized examples of old relations, which may gradually cause inevitable confusion among existing relations. Inspired by the mechanism in human long-term memory formation, we introduce episodic memory activation and reconsolidation (EMAR) to continual relation learning. Every time neural models are activated to learn both new and memorized data, EMAR utilizes relation prototypes for memory reconsolidation exercise to keep a stable understanding of old relations. The experimental results show that EMAR could get rid of catastrophically forgetting old relations and outperform the state-of-the-art continual learning models.