Yi Luan


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Sparse, Dense, and Attentional Representations for Text Retrieval
Yi Luan | Jacob Eisenstein | Kristina Toutanova | Michael Collins
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 9

Abstract Dual encoders perform retrieval by encoding documents and queries into dense low-dimensional vectors, scoring each document by its inner product with the query. We investigate the capacity of this architecture relative to sparse bag-of-words models and attentional neural networks. Using both theoretical and empirical analysis, we establish connections between the encoding dimension, the margin between gold and lower-ranked documents, and the document length, suggesting limitations in the capacity of fixed-length encodings to support precise retrieval of long documents. Building on these insights, we propose a simple neural model that combines the efficiency of dual encoders with some of the expressiveness of more costly attentional architectures, and explore sparse-dense hybrids to capitalize on the precision of sparse retrieval. These models outperform strong alternatives in large-scale retrieval.


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Entity, Relation, and Event Extraction with Contextualized Span Representations
David Wadden | Ulme Wennberg | Yi Luan | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

We examine the capabilities of a unified, multi-task framework for three information extraction tasks: named entity recognition, relation extraction, and event extraction. Our framework (called DyGIE++) accomplishes all tasks by enumerating, refining, and scoring text spans designed to capture local (within-sentence) and global (cross-sentence) context. Our framework achieves state-of-the-art results across all tasks, on four datasets from a variety of domains. We perform experiments comparing different techniques to construct span representations. Contextualized embeddings like BERT perform well at capturing relationships among entities in the same or adjacent sentences, while dynamic span graph updates model long-range cross-sentence relationships. For instance, propagating span representations via predicted coreference links can enable the model to disambiguate challenging entity mentions. Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/dwadden/dygiepp and can be easily adapted for new tasks or datasets.

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Text Generation from Knowledge Graphs with Graph Transformers
Rik Koncel-Kedziorski | Dhanush Bekal | Yi Luan | Mirella Lapata | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Generating texts which express complex ideas spanning multiple sentences requires a structured representation of their content (document plan), but these representations are prohibitively expensive to manually produce. In this work, we address the problem of generating coherent multi-sentence texts from the output of an information extraction system, and in particular a knowledge graph. Graphical knowledge representations are ubiquitous in computing, but pose a significant challenge for text generation techniques due to their non-hierarchical nature, collapsing of long-distance dependencies, and structural variety. We introduce a novel graph transforming encoder which can leverage the relational structure of such knowledge graphs without imposing linearization or hierarchical constraints. Incorporated into an encoder-decoder setup, we provide an end-to-end trainable system for graph-to-text generation that we apply to the domain of scientific text. Automatic and human evaluations show that our technique produces more informative texts which exhibit better document structure than competitive encoder-decoder methods.

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A general framework for information extraction using dynamic span graphs
Yi Luan | Dave Wadden | Luheng He | Amy Shah | Mari Ostendorf | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We introduce a general framework for several information extraction tasks that share span representations using dynamically constructed span graphs. The graphs are dynamically constructed by selecting the most confident entity spans and linking these nodes with confidence-weighted relation types and coreferences. The dynamic span graph allow coreference and relation type confidences to propagate through the graph to iteratively refine the span representations. This is unlike previous multi-task frameworks for information extraction in which the only interaction between tasks is in the shared first-layer LSTM. Our framework significantly outperforms state-of-the-art on multiple information extraction tasks across multiple datasets reflecting different domains. We further observe that the span enumeration approach is good at detecting nested span entities, with significant F1 score improvement on the ACE dataset.

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PaperRobot: Incremental Draft Generation of Scientific Ideas
Qingyun Wang | Lifu Huang | Zhiying Jiang | Kevin Knight | Heng Ji | Mohit Bansal | Yi Luan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We present a PaperRobot who performs as an automatic research assistant by (1) conducting deep understanding of a large collection of human-written papers in a target domain and constructing comprehensive background knowledge graphs (KGs); (2) creating new ideas by predicting links from the background KGs, by combining graph attention and contextual text attention; (3) incrementally writing some key elements of a new paper based on memory-attention networks: from the input title along with predicted related entities to generate a paper abstract, from the abstract to generate conclusion and future work, and finally from future work to generate a title for a follow-on paper. Turing Tests, where a biomedical domain expert is asked to compare a system output and a human-authored string, show PaperRobot generated abstracts, conclusion and future work sections, and new titles are chosen over human-written ones up to 30%, 24% and 12% of the time, respectively.


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Multi-Task Identification of Entities, Relations, and Coreference for Scientific Knowledge Graph Construction
Yi Luan | Luheng He | Mari Ostendorf | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We introduce a multi-task setup of identifying entities, relations, and coreference clusters in scientific articles. We create SciERC, a dataset that includes annotations for all three tasks and develop a unified framework called SciIE with shared span representations. The multi-task setup reduces cascading errors between tasks and leverages cross-sentence relations through coreference links. Experiments show that our multi-task model outperforms previous models in scientific information extraction without using any domain-specific features. We further show that the framework supports construction of a scientific knowledge graph, which we use to analyze information in scientific literature.

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The UWNLP system at SemEval-2018 Task 7: Neural Relation Extraction Model with Selectively Incorporated Concept Embeddings
Yi Luan | Mari Ostendorf | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes our submission for SemEval 2018 Task 7 shared task on semantic relation extraction and classification in scientific papers. Our model is based on the end-to-end relation extraction model of (Miwa and Bansal, 2016) with several enhancements such as character-level encoding attention mechanism on selecting pretrained concept candidate embeddings. Our official submission ranked the second in relation classification task (Subtask 1.1 and Subtask 2 Senerio 2), and the first in the relation extraction task (Subtask 2 Scenario 1).


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Multi-Task Learning for Speaker-Role Adaptation in Neural Conversation Models
Yi Luan | Chris Brockett | Bill Dolan | Jianfeng Gao | Michel Galley
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Building a persona-based conversation agent is challenging owing to the lack of large amounts of speaker-specific conversation data for model training. This paper addresses the problem by proposing a multi-task learning approach to training neural conversation models that leverages both conversation data across speakers and other types of data pertaining to the speaker and speaker roles to be modeled. Experiments show that our approach leads to significant improvements over baseline model quality, generating responses that capture more precisely speakers’ traits and speaking styles. The model offers the benefits of being algorithmically simple and easy to implement, and not relying on large quantities of data representing specific individual speakers.

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Scientific Information Extraction with Semi-supervised Neural Tagging
Yi Luan | Mari Ostendorf | Hannaneh Hajishirzi
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

This paper addresses the problem of extracting keyphrases from scientific articles and categorizing them as corresponding to a task, process, or material. We cast the problem as sequence tagging and introduce semi-supervised methods to a neural tagging model, which builds on recent advances in named entity recognition. Since annotated training data is scarce in this domain, we introduce a graph-based semi-supervised algorithm together with a data selection scheme to leverage unannotated articles. Both inductive and transductive semi-supervised learning strategies outperform state-of-the-art information extraction performance on the 2017 SemEval Task 10 ScienceIE task.


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Multiplicative Representations for Unsupervised Semantic Role Induction
Yi Luan | Yangfeng Ji | Hannaneh Hajishirzi | Boyang Li
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)