Yi-Pei Chen


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Breaking Down Multilingual Machine Translation
Ting-Rui Chiang | Yi-Pei Chen | Yi-Ting Yeh | Graham Neubig
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

While multilingual training is now an essential ingredient in machine translation (MT) systems, recent work has demonstrated that it has different effects in different multilingual settings, such as many-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many learning. These training settings expose the encoder and the decoder in a machine translation model with different data distributions. In this paper, we examine how different varieties of multilingual training contribute to learning these two components of the MT model. Specifically, we compare bilingual models with encoders and/or decoders initialized by multilingual training. We show that multilingual training is beneficial to encoders in general, while it only benefits decoders for low-resource languages (LRLs). We further find the important attention heads for each language pair and compare their correlations during inference. Our analysis sheds light on how multilingual translation models work and also enables us to propose methods to improve performance by training with highly related languages. Our many-to-one models for high-resource languages and one-to-many models for LRL outperform the best results reported by Aharoni et al. (2019).

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How do people talk about images? A study on open-domain conversations with images.
Yi-Pei Chen | Nobuyuki Shimizu | Takashi Miyazaki | Hideki Nakayama
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Student Research Workshop

This paper explores how humans conduct conversations with images by investigating an open-domain image conversation dataset, ImageChat. We examined the conversations with images from the perspectives of image relevancy and image information. We found that utterances/conversations are not always related to the given image, and conversation topics diverge within three turns about half of the time. Besides image objects, more comprehensive non-object image information is also indispensable. After inspecting the causes, we suggested that understanding the overall scenario of image and connecting objects based on their high-level attributes might be very helpful to generate more engaging open-domain conversations when an image is presented. We proposed enriching the image information with image caption and object tags based on our analysis. With our proposed image+ features, we improved automatic metrics including BLEU and Bert Score, and increased the diversity and image-relevancy of generated responses to the strong baseline. The result verifies that our analysis provides valuable insights and could facilitate future research on open-domain conversations with images.


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Unsupervised Parsing with S-DIORA: Single Tree Encoding for Deep Inside-Outside Recursive Autoencoders
Andrew Drozdov | Subendhu Rongali | Yi-Pei Chen | Tim O’Gorman | Mohit Iyyer | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The deep inside-outside recursive autoencoder (DIORA; Drozdov et al. 2019) is a self-supervised neural model that learns to induce syntactic tree structures for input sentences *without access to labeled training data*. In this paper, we discover that while DIORA exhaustively encodes all possible binary trees of a sentence with a soft dynamic program, its vector averaging approach is locally greedy and cannot recover from errors when computing the highest scoring parse tree in bottom-up chart parsing. To fix this issue, we introduce S-DIORA, an improved variant of DIORA that encodes a single tree rather than a softly-weighted mixture of trees by employing a hard argmax operation and a beam at each cell in the chart. Our experiments show that through *fine-tuning* a pre-trained DIORA with our new algorithm, we improve the state of the art in *unsupervised* constituency parsing on the English WSJ Penn Treebank by 2.2-6% F1, depending on the data used for fine-tuning.


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Unsupervised Labeled Parsing with Deep Inside-Outside Recursive Autoencoders
Andrew Drozdov | Patrick Verga | Yi-Pei Chen | Mohit Iyyer | Andrew McCallum
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Understanding text often requires identifying meaningful constituent spans such as noun phrases and verb phrases. In this work, we show that we can effectively recover these types of labels using the learned phrase vectors from deep inside-outside recursive autoencoders (DIORA). Specifically, we cluster span representations to induce span labels. Additionally, we improve the model’s labeling accuracy by integrating latent code learning into the training procedure. We evaluate this approach empirically through unsupervised labeled constituency parsing. Our method outperforms ELMo and BERT on two versions of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) dataset and is competitive to prior work that requires additional human annotations, improving over a previous state-of-the-art system that depends on ground-truth part-of-speech tags by 5 absolute F1 points (19% relative error reduction).

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UHop: An Unrestricted-Hop Relation Extraction Framework for Knowledge-Based Question Answering
Zi-Yuan Chen | Chih-Hung Chang | Yi-Pei Chen | Jijnasa Nayak | Lun-Wei Ku
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In relation extraction for knowledge-based question answering, searching from one entity to another entity via a single relation is called “one hop”. In related work, an exhaustive search from all one-hop relations, two-hop relations, and so on to the max-hop relations in the knowledge graph is necessary but expensive. Therefore, the number of hops is generally restricted to two or three. In this paper, we propose UHop, an unrestricted-hop framework which relaxes this restriction by use of a transition-based search framework to replace the relation-chain-based search one. We conduct experiments on conventional 1- and 2-hop questions as well as lengthy questions, including datasets such as WebQSP, PathQuestion, and Grid World. Results show that the proposed framework enables the ability to halt, works well with state-of-the-art models, achieves competitive performance without exhaustive searches, and opens the performance gap for long relation paths.


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MoodSwipe: A Soft Keyboard that Suggests MessageBased on User-Specified Emotions
Chieh-Yang Huang | Tristan Labetoulle | Ting-Hao Huang | Yi-Pei Chen | Hung-Chen Chen | Vallari Srivastava | Lun-Wei Ku
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

We present MoodSwipe, a soft keyboard that suggests text messages given the user-specified emotions utilizing the real dialog data. The aim of MoodSwipe is to create a convenient user interface to enjoy the technology of emotion classification and text suggestion, and at the same time to collect labeled data automatically for developing more advanced technologies. While users select the MoodSwipe keyboard, they can type as usual but sense the emotion conveyed by their text and receive suggestions for their message as a benefit. In MoodSwipe, the detected emotions serve as the medium for suggested texts, where viewing the latter is the incentive to correcting the former. We conduct several experiments to show the superiority of the emotion classification models trained on the dialog data, and further to verify good emotion cues are important context for text suggestion.