Sparsity of formal knowledge and roughness of non-ontological construction make sparsity problem particularly prominent in Open Knowledge Graphs (OpenKGs). Due to sparse links, learning effective representation for few-shot entities becomes difficult. We hypothesize that by introducing negative samples, a contrastive learning (CL) formulation could be beneficial in such scenarios. However, existing CL methods model KG triplets as binary objects of entities ignoring the relation-guided ternary propagation patterns and they are too generic, i.e., they ignore zero-shot, few-shot and synonymity problems that appear in OpenKGs. To address this, we propose TernaryCL, a CL framework based on ternary propagation patterns among head, relation and tail. TernaryCL designs Contrastive Entity and Contrastive Relation to mine ternary discriminative features with both negative entities and relations, introduces Contrastive Self to help zero- and few-shot entities learn discriminative features, Contrastive Synonym to model synonymous entities, and Contrastive Fusion to aggregate graph features from multiple paths. Extensive experiments on benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of TernaryCL over state-of-the-art models.
With the rapid development of Natural Language Understanding for information retrieval, fine-tuned deep language models, e.g., BERT-based, perform remarkably effective in passage searching tasks. To lower the architecture complexity, the recent state-of-the-art model ColBERT employs Contextualized Late Interaction paradigm to independently learn fine-grained query-passage representations. Apart from the architecture simplification, embedding binarization, as another promising branch in model compression, further specializes in the reduction of memory and computation overheads. In this concise paper, we propose an effective post-training embedding binarization approach over ColBERT, achieving both architecture-level and embedding-level optimization for online inference. The empirical results demonstrate the efficaciousness of our proposed approach, empowering it to perform online query-passage matching acceleration.
Current end-to-end retrieval-based dialogue systems are mainly based on Recurrent Neural Networks or Transformers with attention mechanisms. Although promising results have been achieved, these models often suffer from slow inference or huge number of parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel lightweight fully convolutional architecture, called DialogConv, for response selection. DialogConv is exclusively built on top of convolution to extract matching features of context and response. Dialogues are modeled in 3D views, where DialogConv performs convolution operations on embedding view, word view and utterance view to capture richer semantic information from multiple contextual views. On the four benchmark datasets, compared with state-of-the-art baselines, DialogConv is on average about 8.5x smaller in size, and 79.39x and 10.64x faster on CPU and GPU devices, respectively. At the same time, DialogConv achieves the competitive effectiveness of response selection.
In an open-domain dialogue system, the consistent persona is a key factor to generate real and coherent dialogues. Existing methods suffer from the incomprehensive persona tags that have unique and obscure meanings to describe human’s personality. Besides, the addressee information, which is closely related to express personality in multi-party dialogues, has been neglected. In this paper, we construct a multi-party personalized dialogue dataset and propose a graph convolution network model (PersonaTKG) with addressee selecting mechanism that integrates personas, dialogue utterances, and external text knowledge in a unified graph. Extensive experiments have shown that PersonaTKG outperforms the baselines by large margins and effectively improves persona consistency in the generated responses.
Building dialogue generation systems in a zero-shot scenario remains a huge challenge, since the typical zero-shot approaches in dialogue generation rely heavily on large-scale pre-trained language generation models such as GPT-3 and T5. The research on zero-shot dialogue generation without cumbersome language models is limited due to lacking corresponding parallel dialogue corpora. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective Multilingual learning framework for Zero-shot Dialogue Generation (dubbed as MulZDG) that can effectively transfer knowledge from an English corpus with large-scale training samples to a non-English corpus with zero samples. Besides, MulZDG can be viewed as a multilingual data augmentation method to improve the performance of the resource-rich language. First, we construct multilingual code-switching dialogue datasets via translation utterances randomly selected from monolingual English datasets. Then we employ MulZDG to train a unified multilingual dialogue model based on the code-switching datasets. The MulZDG can conduct implicit semantic alignment between different languages. Experiments on DailyDialog and DSTC7 datasets demonstrate that MulZDG not only achieve competitive performance under zero-shot case compared to training with sufficient examples but also greatly improve the performance of the source language.
Sentiment analysis has always been an important research direction in natural language processing. The research can be divided into explicit sentiment analysis and implicit sentiment analysis according to whether there are sentiment words in language expression. There have been many research results in explicit sentiment analysis. However, implicit sentiment analysis is rarely studied. Compared with explicit sentiment expression, implicit sentiment expression usually omits a lot of knowledge and common sense, and context also has an important impact on implicit sentiment expression. In this paper, we use a knowledge graph to supplement implicit sentiment expression and propose a novel Implicit Sentiment Analysis model combining Knowledge enhancement and Context features (dubbed KC-ISA). The KC-ISA model can effectively integrate external knowledge and contextual features by the coattention mechanism. Finally, we conduct experiments on the SMP2019 implicit sentiment analysis dataset. Moreover, to verify the generality of the model, we also conduct experiments on two common sentiment analysis datasets. The results on three datasets show that our proposed KC-ISA model can achieve better results on text sentiment analysis.
With the popularity of smartphones, we have witnessed the rapid proliferation of multimodal posts on various social media platforms. We observe that the multimodal sentiment expression has specific global characteristics, such as the interdependencies of objects or scenes within the image. However, most previous studies only considered the representation of a single image-text post and failed to capture the global co-occurrence characteristics of the dataset. In this paper, we propose Multi-channel Graph Neural Networks with Sentiment-awareness (MGNNS) for image-text sentiment detection. Specifically, we first encode different modalities to capture hidden representations. Then, we introduce multi-channel graph neural networks to learn multimodal representations based on the global characteristics of the dataset. Finally, we implement multimodal in-depth fusion with the multi-head attention mechanism to predict the sentiment of image-text pairs. Extensive experiments conducted on three publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for multimodal sentiment detection.
Learning to hash via generative model has become a powerful paradigm for fast similarity search in documents retrieval. To get binary representation (i.e., hash codes), the discrete distribution prior (i.e., Bernoulli Distribution) is applied to train the variational autoencoder (VAE). However, the discrete stochastic layer is usually incompatible with the backpropagation in the training stage, and thus causes a gradient flow problem because of non-differentiable operators. The reparameterization trick of sampling from a discrete distribution usually inc non-differentiable operators. In this paper, we propose a method, Doc2hash, that solves the gradient flow problem of the discrete stochastic layer by using continuous relaxation on priors, and trains the generative model in an end-to-end manner to generate hash codes. In qualitative and quantitative experiments, we show the proposed model outperforms other state-of-art methods.
Generating intriguing question is a key step towards building human-like open-domain chatbots. Although some recent works have focused on this task, compared with questions raised by humans, significant gaps remain in maintaining semantic coherence with post, which may result in generating dull or deviated questions. We observe that the answer has strong semantic coherence to its question and post, which can be used to guide question generation. Thus, we devise two methods to further enhance semantic coherence between post and question under the guidance of answer. First, the coherence score between generated question and answer is used as the reward function in a reinforcement learning framework, to encourage the cases that are consistent with the answer in semantic. Second, we incorporate adversarial training to explicitly control question generation in the direction of question-answer coherence. Extensive experiments show that our two methods outperform state-of-the-art baseline algorithms with large margins in raising semantic coherent questions.
In conversational machine comprehension, it has become one of the research hotspots integrating conversational history information through question reformulation for obtaining better answers. However, the existing question reformulation models are trained only using supervised question labels annotated by annotators without considering any feedback information from answers. In this paper, we propose a novel Answer-Supervised Question Reformulation (ASQR) model for enhancing conversational machine comprehension with reinforcement learning technology. ASQR utilizes a pointer-copy-based question reformulation model as an agent, takes an action to predict the next word, and observes a reward for the whole sentence state after generating the end-of-sequence token. The experimental results on QuAC dataset prove that our ASQR model is more effective in conversational machine comprehension. Moreover, pretraining is essential in reinforcement learning models, so we provide a high-quality annotated dataset for question reformulation by sampling a part of QuAC dataset.
Sentiment expression in microblog posts can be affected by user’s personal character, opinion bias, political stance and so on. Most of existing personalized microblog sentiment classification methods suffer from the insufficiency of discriminative tweets for personalization learning. We observed that microblog users have consistent individuality and opinion bias in different languages. Based on this observation, in this paper we propose a novel user-attention-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model with adversarial cross-lingual learning framework. The user attention mechanism is leveraged in CNN model to capture user’s language-specific individuality from the posts. Then the attention-based CNN model is incorporated into a novel adversarial cross-lingual learning framework, in which with the help of user properties as bridge between languages, we can extract the language-specific features and language-independent features to enrich the user post representation so as to alleviate the data insufficiency problem. Results on English and Chinese microblog datasets confirm that our method outperforms state-of-the-art baseline algorithms with large margins.
Emotion cause analysis has been a key topic in natural language processing. Existing methods ignore the contexts around the emotion word which can provide an emotion cause clue. Meanwhile, the clauses in a document play different roles on stimulating a certain emotion, depending on their content relevance. Therefore, we propose a co-attention neural network model for emotion cause analysis with emotional context awareness. The method encodes the clauses with a co-attention based bi-directional long short-term memory into high-level input representations, which are further fed into a convolutional layer for emotion cause analysis. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art baseline methods.