Yiheng Shu


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Distribution Shifts Are Bottlenecks: Extensive Evaluation for Grounding Language Models to Knowledge Bases
Yiheng Shu | Zhiwei Yu
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Grounding language models (LMs) to knowledge bases (KBs) helps to obtain rich and accurate facts. However, it remains challenging because of the enormous size, complex structure, and partial observability of KBs. One reason is that current benchmarks fail to reflect robustness challenges and fairly evaluate models.This paper analyzes whether these robustness challenges arise from distribution shifts, including environmental, linguistic, and modal aspects.This affects the ability of LMs to cope with unseen schema, adapt to language variations, and perform few-shot learning. Thus, the paper proposes extensive evaluation protocols and conducts experiments to demonstrate that, despite utilizing our proposed data augmentation method, both advanced small and large language models exhibit poor robustness in these aspects. We conclude that current LMs are too fragile to navigate in complex environments due to distribution shifts. This underscores the need for future research focusing on data collection, evaluation protocols, and learning paradigms.


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Logical Form Generation via Multi-task Learning for Complex Question Answering over Knowledge Bases
Xixin Hu | Xuan Wu | Yiheng Shu | Yuzhong Qu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Question answering over knowledge bases (KBQA) for complex questions is a challenging task in natural language processing. Recently, generation-based methods that translate natural language questions to executable logical forms have achieved promising performance. These methods use auxiliary information to augment the logical form generation of questions with unseen KB items or novel combinations, but the noise introduced can also leads to more incorrect results. In this work, we propose GMT-KBQA, a Generation-based KBQA method via Multi-Task learning, to better retrieve and utilize auxiliary information. GMT-KBQA first obtains candidate entities and relations through dense retrieval, and then introduces a multi-task model which jointly learns entity disambiguation, relation classification, and logical form generation. Experimental results show that GMT-KBQA achieves state-of-the-art results on both ComplexWebQuestions and WebQuestionsSP datasets. Furthermore, the detailed evaluation demonstrates that GMT-KBQA benefits from the auxiliary tasks and has a strong generalization capability.

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TIARA: Multi-grained Retrieval for Robust Question Answering over Large Knowledge Base
Yiheng Shu | Zhiwei Yu | Yuhan Li | Börje Karlsson | Tingting Ma | Yuzhong Qu | Chin-Yew Lin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pre-trained language models (PLMs) have shown their effectiveness in multiple scenarios. However, KBQA remains challenging, especially regarding coverage and generalization settings. This is due to two main factors: i) understanding the semantics of both questions and relevant knowledge from the KB; ii) generating executable logical forms with both semantic and syntactic correctness. In this paper, we present a new KBQA model, TIARA, which addresses those issues by applying multi-grained retrieval to help the PLM focus on the most relevant KB context, viz., entities, exemplary logical forms, and schema items. Moreover, constrained decoding is used to control the output space and reduce generation errors. Experiments over important benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. TIARA outperforms previous SOTA, including those using PLMs or oracle entity annotations, by at least 4.1 and 1.1 F1 points on GrailQA and WebQuestionsSP, respectively. Specifically on GrailQA, TIARA outperforms previous models in all categories, with an improvement of 4.7 F1 points in zero-shot generalization.