Prior work shows that it is possible to expand pretrained Masked Language Models (MLMs) to new languages by learning a new set of embeddings, while keeping the transformer body frozen. Despite learning a small subset of parameters, this approach is not compute-efficient, as training the new embeddings requires a full forward and backward pass over the entire model. We propose mini-model adaptation, a compute-efficient alternative that builds a shallow mini-model from a fraction of a large model’s parameters. New language-specific embeddings can then be efficiently trained over the mini-model and plugged into the aligned large model for rapid cross-lingual transfer. We explore two approaches to learn mini-models: MINIJOINT, which jointly pretrains the primary model and the mini-model using a single transformer with a secondary MLM head at a middle layer; and MINIPOST, where we start from a regular pretrained model, build a mini-model by extracting and freezing a few layers, and learn a small number of parameters on top. Experiments on XNLI, MLQA and PAWS-X show that mini-model adaptation matches the performance of the standard approach using up to 2.3x less compute on average.
Despite the continuing efforts to improve the engagingness and consistency of chit-chat dialogue systems, the majority of current work simply focus on mimicking human-like responses, leaving understudied the aspects of modeling understanding between interlocutors. The research in cognitive science, instead, suggests that understanding is an essential signal for a high-quality chit-chat conversation. Motivated by this, we propose Pˆ2 Bot, a transmitter-receiver based framework with the aim of explicitly modeling understanding. Specifically, Pˆ2 Bot incorporates mutual persona perception to enhance the quality of personalized dialogue generation. Experiments on a large public dataset, Persona-Chat, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, with a considerable boost over the state-of-the-art baselines across both automatic metrics and human evaluations.