Since the outbreak of coronavirus at the end of 2019, there have been numerous studies on coro- navirus in the NLP arena. Meanwhile, Twitter has been a valuable source of news and a pub- lic medium for the conveyance of information and personal expression. This paper describes the system developed by the Ochadai team for the Social Media Mining for Health Appli- cations (SMM4H) 2021 Task 5, which aims to automatically distinguish English tweets that self-report potential cases of COVID-19 from those that do not. We proposed a model ensemble that leverages pre-trained represen- tations from COVID-Twitter-BERT (Müller et al., 2020), RoBERTa (Liu et al., 2019), and Twitter-RoBERTa (Glazkova et al., 2021). Our model obtained F1-scores of 76% on the test set in the evaluation phase, and 77.5% in the post-evaluation phase.
Deep neural network models have helped named entity recognition achieve amazing performance without handcrafting features. However, existing systems require large amounts of human annotated training data. Efforts have been made to replace human annotations with external knowledge (e.g., NE dictionary, part-of-speech tags), while it is another challenge to obtain such effective resources. In this work, we propose a fully unsupervised NE recognition model which only needs to take informative clues from pre-trained word embeddings.We first apply Gaussian Hidden Markov Model and Deep Autoencoding Gaussian Mixture Model on word embeddings for entity span detection and type prediction, and then further design an instance selector based on reinforcement learning to distinguish positive sentences from noisy sentences and then refine these coarse-grained annotations through neural networks. Extensive experiments on two CoNLL benchmark NER datasets (CoNLL-2003 English dataset and CoNLL-2002 Spanish dataset) demonstrate that our proposed light NE recognition model achieves remarkable performance without using any annotated lexicon or corpus.
In this paper, we propose a novel bipartite flat-graph network (BiFlaG) for nested named entity recognition (NER), which contains two subgraph modules: a flat NER module for outermost entities and a graph module for all the entities located in inner layers. Bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM) and graph convolutional network (GCN) are adopted to jointly learn flat entities and their inner dependencies. Different from previous models, which only consider the unidirectional delivery of information from innermost layers to outer ones (or outside-to-inside), our model effectively captures the bidirectional interaction between them. We first use the entities recognized by the flat NER module to construct an entity graph, which is fed to the next graph module. The richer representation learned from graph module carries the dependencies of inner entities and can be exploited to improve outermost entity predictions. Experimental results on three standard nested NER datasets demonstrate that our BiFlaG outperforms previous state-of-the-art models.