Yingxia Shao


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Causal Intervention and Counterfactual Reasoning for Multi-modal Fake News Detection
Ziwei Chen | Linmei Hu | Weixin Li | Yingxia Shao | Liqiang Nie
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Due to the rapid upgrade of social platforms, most of today’s fake news is published and spread in a multi-modal form. Most existing multi-modal fake news detection methods neglect the fact that some label-specific features learned from the training set cannot generalize well to the testing set, thus inevitably suffering from the harm caused by the latent data bias. In this paper, we analyze and identify the psycholinguistic bias in the text and the bias of inferring news label based on only image features. We mitigate these biases from a causality perspective and propose a Causal intervention and Counterfactual reasoning based Debiasing framework (CCD) for multi-modal fake news detection. To achieve our goal, we first utilize causal intervention to remove the psycholinguistic bias which introduces the spurious correlations between text features and news label. And then, we apply counterfactual reasoning by imagining a counterfactual world where each news has only image features for estimating the direct effect of the image. Therefore we can eliminate the image-only bias by deducting the direct effect of the image from the total effect on labels. Extensive experiments on two real-world benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for improving multi-modal fake news detection.

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RetroMAE-2: Duplex Masked Auto-Encoder For Pre-Training Retrieval-Oriented Language Models
Zheng Liu | Shitao Xiao | Yingxia Shao | Zhao Cao
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

To better support information retrieval tasks such as web search and open-domain question answering, growing effort is made to develop retrieval-oriented language models, e.g., RetroMAE and many others. Most of the existing works focus on improving the semantic representation capability for the contextualized embedding of the [CLS] token. However, recent study shows that the ordinary tokens besides [CLS] may provide extra information, which help to produce a better representation effect. As such, it’s necessary to extend the current methods where all contextualized embeddings can be jointly pre-trained for the retrieval tasks. In this work, we propose a novel pre-training method called Duplex Masked Auto-Encoder, a.k.a. DupMAE. It is designed to improve the quality of semantic representation where all contextualized embeddings of the pre-trained model can be leveraged. It takes advantage of two complementary auto-encoding tasks: one reconstructs the input sentence on top of the [CLS] embedding; the other one predicts the bag-of-words feature of the input sentence based on the ordinary tokens’ embeddings. The two tasks are jointly conducted to train a unified encoder, where the whole contextualized embeddings are aggregated in a compact way to produce the final semantic representation. DupMAE is simple but empirically competitive: it substantially improves the pre-trained model’s representation capability and transferability, where superior retrieval performances can be achieved on popular benchmarks, like MS MARCO and BEIR. We make our code publicly available at https://github.com/staoxiao/RetroMAE.

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Knowledgeable Parameter Efficient Tuning Network for Commonsense Question Answering
Ziwang Zhao | Linmei Hu | Hanyu Zhao | Yingxia Shao | Yequan Wang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Commonsense question answering is important for making decisions about everyday matters. Although existing commonsense question answering works based on fully fine-tuned PLMs have achieved promising results, they suffer from prohibitive computation costs as well as poor interpretability. Some works improve the PLMs by incorporating knowledge to provide certain evidence, via elaborately designed GNN modules which require expertise. In this paper, we propose a simple knowledgeable parameter efficient tuning network to couple PLMs with external knowledge for commonsense question answering. Specifically, we design a trainable parameter-sharing adapter attached to a parameter-freezing PLM to incorporate knowledge at a small cost. The adapter is equipped with both entity- and query-related knowledge via two auxiliary knowledge-related tasks (i.e., span masking and relation discrimination). To make the adapter focus on the relevant knowledge, we design gating and attention mechanisms to respectively filter and fuse the query information from the PLM. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets show that KPE is parameter-efficient and can effectively incorporate knowledge for improving commonsense question answering.


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RetroMAE: Pre-Training Retrieval-oriented Language Models Via Masked Auto-Encoder
Shitao Xiao | Zheng Liu | Yingxia Shao | Zhao Cao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite pre-training’s progress in many important NLP tasks, it remains to explore effective pre-training strategies for dense retrieval. In this paper, we propose RetroMAE, a new retrieval oriented pre-training paradigm based on Masked Auto-Encoder (MAE). RetroMAE is highlighted by three critical designs. 1) A novel MAE workflow, where the input sentence is polluted for encoder and decoder with different masks. The sentence embedding is generated from the encoder’s masked input; then, the original sentence is recovered based on the sentence embedding and the decoder’s masked input via masked language modeling. 2) Asymmetric model structure, with a full-scale BERT like transformer as encoder, and a one-layer transformer as decoder. 3) Asymmetric masking ratios, with a moderate ratio for encoder: 15 30%, and an aggressive ratio for decoder: 50 70%. Our framework is simple to realize and empirically competitive: the pre-trained models dramatically improve the SOTA performances on a wide range of dense retrieval benchmarks, like BEIR and MS MARCO. The source code and pre-trained models are made publicly available at https://github.com/staoxiao/RetroMAE so as to inspire more interesting research.


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Matching-oriented Embedding Quantization For Ad-hoc Retrieval
Shitao Xiao | Zheng Liu | Yingxia Shao | Defu Lian | Xing Xie
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Product quantization (PQ) is a widely used technique for ad-hoc retrieval. Recent studies propose supervised PQ, where the embedding and quantization models can be jointly trained with supervised learning. However, there is a lack of appropriate formulation of the joint training objective; thus, the improvements over previous non-supervised baselines are limited in reality. In this work, we propose the Matching-oriented Product Quantization (MoPQ), where a novel objective Multinoulli Contrastive Loss (MCL) is formulated. With the minimization of MCL, we are able to maximize the matching probability of query and ground-truth key, which contributes to the optimal retrieval accuracy. Given that the exact computation of MCL is intractable due to the demand of vast contrastive samples, we further propose the Differentiable Cross-device Sampling (DCS), which significantly augments the contrastive samples for precise approximation of MCL. We conduct extensive experimental studies on four real-world datasets, whose results verify the effectiveness of MoPQ. The code is available at https://github.com/microsoft/MoPQ.