Zhangzhou Implosives and Their Variations
Yishan Huang | Gwendolyn Hyslop
Proceedings of the The 20th Annual Workshop of the Australasian Language Technology Association
Zhangzhou Southern Min employs the airstream mechanism of glottalic ingressive as a contrastive feature in its onset system. However, their realisations are highly diverse with eleven phonetic variants that can be derived from three implosive phonemes (/ɓ, ɗ, ɠ/). The allophonic variations are regressively motivated by three driving factors comprising the nasal [Ṽ], labial-velar [u, w], and palatal [i, j] characteristics of subsequent segments. Several processes that include labialisation, nasalisation, lenition, laminalisation, dentalisation and palatalisation have been found to trigger alternation on the airstream mechanism, manner of articulation, and place of articulation of related sounds, resulting in diverse phonetic outputs of the three implosives phonemes that can be captured using phonological rules.
Right-Dominant Tones in Zhangzhou: On and Through Phonetic Surface
Proceedings of the 34th Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing (ROCLING 2022)
This study conducts a systematic acoustic exploration into the phonetic nature of rightmost tones in a right-dominant tone sandhi system based on empirical data from 21 native speakers of Zhangzhou Southern Min, which presents eight tonal contrasts at the underlying level. The results reveal that, (a) the F0 contour shape realisation of rightmost tones in Zhangzhou appears not to be categorically affected by their preceding tones. (b) Seven out of eight rightmost tones have two statistically significantly different variants in their F0 onset realisation, indicating their regressive sensitivity to the offset phonetics of preceding tones. (c) The forms of rightmost tones are not straightforward related to their counterparts in citation. Instead, two versions of the F0 system can be identified, with the unmarked forms resembling their citation values and the marked forms occurring as a consequence of the phonetic impact of their preceding tones and the F0-declining effect of utterance-final position. (d) The phonetic variation of rightmost tones reflects the across-linguistic tendency of tonal articulation in connected speech but contradicts the default principle for identifying the right dominance of tone sandhi in Sinitic languages.