Yitao Cai


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Revisiting Pivot-Based Paraphrase Generation: Language Is Not the Only Optional Pivot
Yitao Cai | Yue Cao | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Paraphrases refer to texts that convey the same meaning with different expression forms. Pivot-based methods, also known as the round-trip translation, have shown promising results in generating high-quality paraphrases. However, existing pivot-based methods all rely on language as the pivot, where large-scale, high-quality parallel bilingual texts are required. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using semantic and syntactic representations as the pivot for paraphrase generation. Concretely, we transform a sentence into a variety of different semantic or syntactic representations (including AMR, UD, and latent semantic representation), and then decode the sentence back from the semantic representations. We further explore a pretraining-based approach to compress the pipeline process into an end-to-end framework. We conduct experiments comparing different approaches with different kinds of pivots. Experimental results show that taking AMR as pivot can obtain paraphrases with better quality than taking language as the pivot. The end-to-end framework can reduce semantic shift when language is used as the pivot. Besides, several unsupervised pivot-based methods can generate paraphrases with similar quality as the supervised sequence-to-sequence model, which indicates that parallel data of paraphrases may not be necessary for paraphrase generation.

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Making Better Use of Bilingual Information for Cross-Lingual AMR Parsing
Yitao Cai | Zhe Lin | Xiaojun Wan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Towards Document-Level Paraphrase Generation with Sentence Rewriting and Reordering
Zhe Lin | Yitao Cai | Xiaojun Wan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Paraphrase generation is an important task in natural language processing. Previous works focus on sentence-level paraphrase generation, while ignoring document-level paraphrase generation, which is a more challenging and valuable task. In this paper, we explore the task of document-level paraphrase generation for the first time and focus on the inter-sentence diversity by considering sentence rewriting and reordering. We propose CoRPG (Coherence Relationship guided Paraphrase Generation), which leverages graph GRU to encode the coherence relationship graph and get the coherence-aware representation for each sentence, which can be used for re-arranging the multiple (possibly modified) input sentences. We create a pseudo document-level paraphrase dataset for training CoRPG. Automatic evaluation results show CoRPG outperforms several strong baseline models on the BERTScore and diversity scores. Human evaluation also shows our model can generate document paraphrase with more diversity and semantic preservation.


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IGSQL: Database Schema Interaction Graph Based Neural Model for Context-Dependent Text-to-SQL Generation
Yitao Cai | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Context-dependent text-to-SQL task has drawn much attention in recent years. Previous models on context-dependent text-to-SQL task only concentrate on utilizing historic user inputs. In this work, in addition to using encoders to capture historic information of user inputs, we propose a database schema interaction graph encoder to utilize historic information of database schema items. In decoding phase, we introduce a gate mechanism to weigh the importance of different vocabularies and then make the prediction of SQL tokens. We evaluate our model on the benchmark SParC and CoSQL datasets, which are two large complex context-dependent cross-domain text-to-SQL datasets. Our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art model by a large margin and achieves new state-of-the-art results on the two datasets. The comparison and ablation results demonstrate the efficacy of our model and the usefulness of the database schema interaction graph encoder.


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Multi-Modal Sarcasm Detection in Twitter with Hierarchical Fusion Model
Yitao Cai | Huiyu Cai | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Sarcasm is a subtle form of language in which people express the opposite of what is implied. Previous works of sarcasm detection focused on texts. However, more and more social media platforms like Twitter allow users to create multi-modal messages, including texts, images, and videos. It is insufficient to detect sarcasm from multi-model messages based only on texts. In this paper, we focus on multi-modal sarcasm detection for tweets consisting of texts and images in Twitter. We treat text features, image features and image attributes as three modalities and propose a multi-modal hierarchical fusion model to address this task. Our model first extracts image features and attribute features, and then leverages attribute features and bidirectional LSTM network to extract text features. Features of three modalities are then reconstructed and fused into one feature vector for prediction. We create a multi-modal sarcasm detection dataset based on Twitter. Evaluation results on the dataset demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed model and the usefulness of the three modalities.


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Sense-Aware Neural Models for Pun Location in Texts
Yitao Cai | Yin Li | Xiaojun Wan
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

A homographic pun is a form of wordplay in which one signifier (usually a word) suggests two or more meanings by exploiting polysemy for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect. In this paper, we focus on the task of pun location, which aims to identify the pun word in a given short text. We propose a sense-aware neural model to address this challenging task. Our model first obtains several WSD results for the text, and then leverages a bidirectional LSTM network to model each sequence of word senses. The outputs at each time step for different LSTM networks are then concatenated for prediction. Evaluation results on the benchmark SemEval 2017 dataset demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed model.