Yitong Li


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Retrieval-free Knowledge Injection through Multi-Document Traversal for Dialogue Models
Rui Wang | Jianzhu Bao | Fei Mi | Yi Chen | Hongru Wang | Yasheng Wang | Yitong Li | Lifeng Shang | Kam-Fai Wong | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Dialogue models are often enriched with extensive external knowledge to provide informative responses through a retrieval-augmented pipeline. Nevertheless, retrieval-augmented approaches rely on finely annotated retrieval training data and knowledge-grounded response generation data, making it costly to transfer. To tackle this challenge, this paper proposed a retrieval-free approach, KiDG, by automatically turning knowledge documents into simulated multi-turn dialogues through a Multi-Document Traversal algorithm. The simulated knowledge-intensive dialogues constructed by KiDG in one domain can be easily used to train and enhance pre-trained dialogue models’ knowledge w.r.t. this domain without costly annotation. We conduct extensive experiments comparing retrieval-augmented models and a variety of retrieval-free models. We found that dialogue models enhanced with data simulated with KiDG largely outperform state-of-the-art retrieval-free methods, and it achieves comparable performance compared to retrieval-augmented methods while being better, and cheaper at domain transfer.

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A Synthetic Data Generation Framework for Grounded Dialogues
Jianzhu Bao | Rui Wang | Yasheng Wang | Aixin Sun | Yitong Li | Fei Mi | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Training grounded response generation models often requires a large collection of grounded dialogues. However, it is costly to build such dialogues. In this paper, we present a synthetic data generation framework (SynDG) for grounded dialogues. The generation process utilizes large pre-trained language models and freely available knowledge data (e.g., Wikipedia pages, persona profiles, etc.). The key idea of designing SynDG is to consider dialogue flow and coherence in the generation process. Specifically, given knowledge data, we first heuristically determine a dialogue flow, which is a series of knowledge pieces. Then, we employ T5 to incrementally turn the dialogue flow into a dialogue. To ensure coherence of both the dialogue flow and the synthetic dialogue, we design a two-level filtering strategy, at the flow-level and the utterance-level respectively. Experiments on two public benchmarks show that the synthetic grounded dialogue data produced by our framework is able to significantly boost model performance in both full training data and low-resource scenarios.

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CHBias: Bias Evaluation and Mitigation of Chinese Conversational Language Models
Jiaxu Zhao | Meng Fang | Zijing Shi | Yitong Li | Ling Chen | Mykola Pechenizkiy
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

redWarning: This paper contains content that may be offensive or upsetting.Pretrained conversational agents have been exposed to safety issues, exhibiting a range of stereotypical human biases such as gender bias. However, there are still limited bias categories in current research, and most of them only focus on English. In this paper, we introduce a new Chinese dataset, CHBias, for bias evaluation and mitigation of Chinese conversational language models.Apart from those previous well-explored bias categories, CHBias includes under-explored bias categories, such as ageism and appearance biases, which received less attention. We evaluate two popular pretrained Chinese conversational models, CDial-GPT and EVA2.0, using CHBias. Furthermore, to mitigate different biases, we apply several debiasing methods to the Chinese pretrained models. Experimental results show that these Chinese pretrained models are potentially risky for generating texts that contain social biases, and debiasing methods using the proposed dataset can make response generation less biased while preserving the models’ conversational capabilities.

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Towards Fewer Hallucinations in Knowledge-Grounded Dialogue Generation via Augmentative and Contrastive Knowledge-Dialogue
Bin Sun | Yitong Li | Fei Mi | Fanhu Bie | Yiwei Li | Kan Li
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Existing knowledge-grounded open-domain dialogue generation models often face the hallucination problem, i.e. the dialogue generative model will persist in an inappropriate knowledge and generate responses that inconsistent with the facts. We argue that this problem mainly stems from the polarized optimization objectives and weak knowledge generation ability. To mitigate the hallucination, we take inspiration from human communicating that people will replay euphemistic responses for the unclear or unrecognizable knowledge, and propose an Augmentative and Contrastive Knowledge Dialogue Expansion Framework (ACK-DEF). ACK-DEF constructs the augmentative and contrastive knowledge dialogue samples, which consist of the knowledge of different degrees of errors and the response of manual design, to expand the original training set and smooth the polarized optimization objective that enables models to generate ground-truth with or without gold knowledge. Not only the knowledge, ACK-DEF also provides the tactful responses of manual design corresponding to the incomplete correct knowledge. Experimental results on the Wikipedia of Wizard dataset show that employing the ACK-DEF is effective to alleviate the hallucination problem.

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ReSee: Responding through Seeing Fine-grained Visual Knowledge in Open-domain Dialogue
Haoqin Tu | Yitong Li | Fei Mi | Zhongliang Yang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Incorporating visual knowledge into text-only dialogue systems has become a potential direction to imitate the way humans think, imagine, and communicate. However, existing multimodal dialogue systems are either confined by the scale and quality of available datasets or the coarse concept of visual knowledge. To address these issues, we provide a new paradigm of constructing multimodal dialogues as well as two datasets extended from text-only dialogues under such paradigm (ReSee-WoW, ReSee-DD). We propose to explicitly split the visual knowledge into finer granularity (“turn-level” and “entity-level”). To further boost the accuracy and diversity of augmented visual information, we retrieve them from the Internet or a large image dataset. To demonstrate the superiority and universality of the provided visual knowledge, we propose a simple but effective framework ReSee to add visual representation into vanilla dialogue models by modality concatenations. We also conduct extensive experiments and ablations w.r.t. different model configurations and visual knowledge settings. Empirical, encouraging results not only demonstrate the effectiveness of introducing visual knowledge at both entity and turn level but also verify the proposed model ReSee outperforms several state-of-the-art methods on automatic and human evaluations. By leveraging text and vision knowledge, ReSee can produce informative responses with real-world visual concepts. Our code is available at https://github.com/ImKeTT/ReSee.


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Pan More Gold from the Sand: Refining Open-domain Dialogue Training with Noisy Self-Retrieval Generation
Yihe Wang | Yitong Li | Yasheng Wang | Fei Mi | Pingyi Zhou | Xin Wang | Jin Liu | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Real human conversation data are complicated, heterogeneous, and noisy, from which building open-domain dialogue systems remains a challenging task. In fact, such dialogue data still contains a wealth of information and knowledge, however, they are not fully explored. In this paper, we show existing open-domain dialogue generation methods that memorize context-response paired data with autoregressive or encode-decode language models underutilize the training data. Different from current approaches, using external knowledge, we explore a retrieval-generation training framework that can take advantage of the heterogeneous and noisy training data by considering them as “evidence”. In particular, we use BERTScore for retrieval, which gives better qualities of the evidence and generation. Experiments over publicly available datasets demonstrate that our method can help models generate better responses, even such training data are usually impressed as low-quality data. Such performance gain is comparable with those improved by enlarging the training set, even better. We also found that the model performance has a positive correlation with the relevance of the retrieved evidence. Moreover, our method performed well on zero-shot experiments, which indicates that our method can be more robust to real-world data.

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Compilable Neural Code Generation with Compiler Feedback
Xin Wang | Yasheng Wang | Yao Wan | Fei Mi | Yitong Li | Pingyi Zhou | Jin Liu | Hao Wu | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Automatically generating compilable programs with (or without) natural language descriptions has always been a touchstone problem for computational linguistics and automated software engineering. Existing deep-learning approaches model code generation as text generation, either constrained by grammar structures in decoder, or driven by pre-trained language models on large-scale code corpus (e.g., CodeGPT, PLBART, and CodeT5). However, few of them account for compilability of the generated programs. To improve compilability of the generated programs, this paper proposes COMPCODER, a three-stage pipeline utilizing compiler feedback for compilable code generation, including language model fine-tuning, compilability reinforcement, and compilability discrimination. Comprehensive experiments on two code generation tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, improving the success rate of compilation from 44.18 to 89.18 in code completion on average and from 70.3 to 96.2 in text-to-code generation, respectively, when comparing with the state-of-the-art CodeGPT.

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Towards Identifying Social Bias in Dialog Systems: Framework, Dataset, and Benchmark
Jingyan Zhou | Jiawen Deng | Fei Mi | Yitong Li | Yasheng Wang | Minlie Huang | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Helen Meng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Among all the safety concerns that hinder the deployment of open-domain dialog systems (e.g., offensive languages, biases, and toxic behaviors), social bias presents an insidious challenge. Addressing this challenge requires rigorous analyses and normative reasoning. In this paper, we focus our investigation on social bias measurement to facilitate the development of unbiased dialog systems. We first propose a novel Dial-Bias Framework for analyzing the social bias in conversations using a holistic method beyond bias lexicons or dichotomous annotations. Leveraging the proposed framework, we further introduce the CDial-Bias Dataset which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first annotated Chinese social bias dialog dataset. We also establish a fine-grained dialog bias measurement benchmark and conduct in-depth ablation studies to shed light on the utility of the detailed annotations in the proposed dataset. Finally, we evaluate representative Chinese generative models with our classifiers to unveil the presence of social bias in these systems.

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Modeling Complex Dialogue Mappings via Sentence Semantic Segmentation Guided Conditional Variational Auto-Encoder
Bin Sun | Shaoxiong Feng | Yiwei Li | Weichao Wang | Fei Mi | Yitong Li | Kan Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Complex dialogue mappings (CDM), including one-to-many and many-to-one mappings, tend to make dialogue models generate incoherent or dull responses, and modeling these mappings remains a huge challenge for neural dialogue systems. To alleviate these problems, methods like introducing external information, reconstructing the optimization function, and manipulating data samples are proposed, while they primarily focus on avoiding training with CDM, inevitably weakening the model’s ability of understanding CDM in human conversations and limiting further improvements in model performance. This paper proposes a Sentence Semantic Segmentation guided Conditional Variational Auto-Encoder (SegCVAE) method which can model and take advantages of the CDM data. Specifically, to tackle the incoherent problem caused by one-to-many, SegCVAE uses response-related prominent semantics to constrained the latent variable. To mitigate the non-diverse problem brought by many-to-one, SegCVAE segments multiple prominent semantics to enrich the latent variables. Three novel components, Internal Separation, External Guidance, and Semantic Norms, are proposed to achieve SegCVAE. On dialogue generation tasks, both the automatic and human evaluation results show that SegCVAE achieves new state-of-the-art performance.

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Towards Fair Dataset Distillation for Text Classification
Xudong Han | Aili Shen | Yitong Li | Lea Frermann | Timothy Baldwin | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of The Third Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing (SustaiNLP)

With the growing prevalence of large-scale language models, their energy footprint and potential to learn and amplify historical biases are two pressing challenges. Dataset distillation (DD) — a method for reducing the dataset size by learning a small number of synthetic samples which encode the information in the original dataset — is a method for reducing the cost of model training, however its impact on fairness has not been studied. We investigate how DD impacts on group bias, with experiments over two language classification tasks, concluding that vanilla DD preserves the bias of the dataset. We then show how existing debiasing methods can be combined with DD to produce models that are fair and accurate, at reduced training cost.

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RotateQVS: Representing Temporal Information as Rotations in Quaternion Vector Space for Temporal Knowledge Graph Completion
Kai Chen | Ye Wang | Yitong Li | Aiping Li
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Temporal factors are tied to the growth of facts in realistic applications, such as the progress of diseases and the development of political situation, therefore, research on Temporal Knowledge Graph (TKG) attracks much attention. In TKG, relation patterns inherent with temporality are required to be studied for representation learning and reasoning across temporal facts. However, existing methods can hardly model temporal relation patterns, nor can capture the intrinsic connections between relations when evolving over time, lacking of interpretability. In this paper, we propose a novel temporal modeling method which represents temporal entities as Rotations in Quaternion Vector Space (RotateQVS) and relations as complex vectors in Hamilton’s quaternion space. We demonstrate our method can model key patterns of relations in TKG, such as symmetry, asymmetry, inverse, and can capture time-evolved relations by theory. And empirically, we show that our method can boost the performance of link prediction tasks over four temporal knowledge graph benchmarks.

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UniDS: A Unified Dialogue System for Chit-Chat and Task-oriented Dialogues
Xinyan Zhao | Bin He | Yasheng Wang | Yitong Li | Fei Mi | Yajiao Liu | Xin Jiang | Qun Liu | Huanhuan Chen
Proceedings of the Second DialDoc Workshop on Document-grounded Dialogue and Conversational Question Answering

With the advances in deep learning, tremendous progress has been made with chit-chat dialogue systems and task-oriented dialogue systems. However, these two systems are often tackled separately in current methods. To achieve more natural interaction with humans, dialogue systems need to be capable of both chatting and accomplishing tasks. To this end, we propose a unified dialogue system (UniDS) with the two aforementioned skills. In particular, we design a unified dialogue data schema, compatible for both chit-chat and task-oriented dialogues. Besides, we propose a two-stage training method to train UniDS based on the unified dialogue data schema. UniDS does not need to adding extra parameters to existing chit-chat dialogue systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed UniDS works comparably well as the state-of-the-art chit-chat dialogue systems and task-oriented dialogue systems. More importantly, UniDS achieves better robustness than pure dialogue systems and satisfactory switch ability between two types of dialogues.

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AEG: Argumentative Essay Generation via A Dual-Decoder Model with Content Planning
Jianzhu Bao | Yasheng Wang | Yitong Li | Fei Mi | Ruifeng Xu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Argument generation is an important but challenging task in computational argumentation. Existing studies have mainly focused on generating individual short arguments, while research on generating long and coherent argumentative essays is still under-explored. In this paper, we propose a new task, Argumentative Essay Generation (AEG).Given a writing prompt, the goal of AEG is to automatically generate an argumentative essay with strong persuasiveness. We construct a large-scale dataset, ArgEssay, for this new task and establish a strong model based on a dual-decoder Transformer architecture. Our proposed model contains two decoders, a planning decoder (PD) and a writing decoder (WD), where PD is used to generate a sequence for essay content planning and WD incorporates the planning information to write an essay. Further, we pre-train this model on a large news dataset to enhance the plan-and-write paradigm. Automatic and human evaluation results show that our model can generate more coherent and persuasive essays with higher diversity and less repetition compared to several baselines.

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FairLib: A Unified Framework for Assessing and Improving Fairness
Xudong Han | Aili Shen | Yitong Li | Lea Frermann | Timothy Baldwin | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

This paper presents FairLib, an open-source python library for assessing and improving model fairness. It provides a systematic framework for quickly accessing benchmark datasets, reproducing existing debiasing baseline models, developing new methods, evaluating models with different metrics, and visualizing their results. Its modularity and extensibility enable the framework to be used for diverse types of inputs, including natural language, images, and audio. We implement 14 debiasing methods, including pre-processing,at-training-time, and post-processing approaches. The built-in metrics cover the most commonly acknowledged fairness criteria and can be further generalized and customized for fairness evaluation.


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Uncertainty-Aware Balancing for Multilingual and Multi-Domain Neural Machine Translation Training
Minghao Wu | Yitong Li | Meng Zhang | Liangyou Li | Gholamreza Haffari | Qun Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Learning multilingual and multi-domain translation model is challenging as the heterogeneous and imbalanced data make the model converge inconsistently over different corpora in real world. One common practice is to adjust the share of each corpus in the training, so that the learning process is balanced and low-resource cases can benefit from the high resource ones. However, automatic balancing methods usually depend on the intra- and inter-dataset characteristics, which is usually agnostic or requires human priors. In this work, we propose an approach, MultiUAT, that dynamically adjusts the training data usage based on the model’s uncertainty on a small set of trusted clean data for multi-corpus machine translation. We experiments with two classes of uncertainty measures on multilingual (16 languages with 4 settings) and multi-domain settings (4 for in-domain and 2 for out-of-domain on English-German translation) and demonstrate our approach MultiUAT substantially outperforms its baselines, including both static and dynamic strategies. We analyze the cross-domain transfer and show the deficiency of static and similarity based methods.


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Improving Disentangled Text Representation Learning with Information-Theoretic Guidance
Pengyu Cheng | Martin Renqiang Min | Dinghan Shen | Christopher Malon | Yizhe Zhang | Yitong Li | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Learning disentangled representations of natural language is essential for many NLP tasks, e.g., conditional text generation, style transfer, personalized dialogue systems, etc. Similar problems have been studied extensively for other forms of data, such as images and videos. However, the discrete nature of natural language makes the disentangling of textual representations more challenging (e.g., the manipulation over the data space cannot be easily achieved). Inspired by information theory, we propose a novel method that effectively manifests disentangled representations of text, without any supervision on semantics. A new mutual information upper bound is derived and leveraged to measure dependence between style and content. By minimizing this upper bound, the proposed method induces style and content embeddings into two independent low-dimensional spaces. Experiments on both conditional text generation and text-style transfer demonstrate the high quality of our disentangled representation in terms of content and style preservation.

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Differentially Private Representation for NLP: Formal Guarantee and An Empirical Study on Privacy and Fairness
Lingjuan Lyu | Xuanli He | Yitong Li
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

It has been demonstrated that hidden representation learned by deep model can encode private information of the input, hence can be exploited to recover such information with reasonable accuracy. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach called Differentially Private Neural Representation (DPNR) to preserve privacy of the extracted representation from text. DPNR utilises Differential Privacy (DP) to provide formal privacy guarantee. Further, we show that masking words via dropout can further enhance privacy. To maintain utility of the learned representation, we integrate DP-noisy representation into a robust training process to derive a robust target model, which also helps for model fairness over various demographic variables. Experimental results on benchmark datasets under various parameter settings demonstrate that DPNR largely reduces privacy leakage without significantly sacrificing the main task performance.


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Semi-supervised Stochastic Multi-Domain Learning using Variational Inference
Yitong Li | Timothy Baldwin | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Supervised models of NLP rely on large collections of text which closely resemble the intended testing setting. Unfortunately matching text is often not available in sufficient quantity, and moreover, within any domain of text, data is often highly heterogenous. In this paper we propose a method to distill the important domain signal as part of a multi-domain learning system, using a latent variable model in which parts of a neural model are stochastically gated based on the inferred domain. We compare the use of discrete versus continuous latent variables, operating in a domain-supervised or a domain semi-supervised setting, where the domain is known only for a subset of training inputs. We show that our model leads to substantial performance improvements over competitive benchmark domain adaptation methods, including methods using adversarial learning.


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What’s in a Domain? Learning Domain-Robust Text Representations using Adversarial Training
Yitong Li | Timothy Baldwin | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Most real world language problems require learning from heterogenous corpora, raising the problem of learning robust models which generalise well to both similar (in domain) and dissimilar (out of domain) instances to those seen in training. This requires learning an underlying task, while not learning irrelevant signals and biases specific to individual domains. We propose a novel method to optimise both in- and out-of-domain accuracy based on joint learning of a structured neural model with domain-specific and domain-general components, coupled with adversarial training for domain. Evaluating on multi-domain language identification and multi-domain sentiment analysis, we show substantial improvements over standard domain adaptation techniques, and domain-adversarial training.

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Learning Context-Sensitive Convolutional Filters for Text Processing
Dinghan Shen | Martin Renqiang Min | Yitong Li | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have recently emerged as a popular building block for natural language processing (NLP). Despite their success, most existing CNN models employed in NLP share the same learned (and static) set of filters for all input sentences. In this paper, we consider an approach of using a small meta network to learn context-sensitive convolutional filters for text processing. The role of meta network is to abstract the contextual information of a sentence or document into a set of input-sensitive filters. We further generalize this framework to model sentence pairs, where a bidirectional filter generation mechanism is introduced to encapsulate co-dependent sentence representations. In our benchmarks on four different tasks, including ontology classification, sentiment analysis, answer sentence selection, and paraphrase identification, our proposed model, a modified CNN with context-sensitive filters, consistently outperforms the standard CNN and attention-based CNN baselines. By visualizing the learned context-sensitive filters, we further validate and rationalize the effectiveness of proposed framework.

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Towards Robust and Privacy-preserving Text Representations
Yitong Li | Timothy Baldwin | Trevor Cohn
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Written text often provides sufficient clues to identify the author, their gender, age, and other important attributes. Consequently, the authorship of training and evaluation corpora can have unforeseen impacts, including differing model performance for different user groups, as well as privacy implications. In this paper, we propose an approach to explicitly obscure important author characteristics at training time, such that representations learned are invariant to these attributes. Evaluating on two tasks, we show that this leads to increased privacy in the learned representations, as well as more robust models to varying evaluation conditions, including out-of-domain corpora.


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Robust Training under Linguistic Adversity
Yitong Li | Trevor Cohn | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

Deep neural networks have achieved remarkable results across many language processing tasks, however they have been shown to be susceptible to overfitting and highly sensitive to noise, including adversarial attacks. In this work, we propose a linguistically-motivated approach for training robust models based on exposing the model to corrupted text examples at training time. We consider several flavours of linguistically plausible corruption, include lexical semantic and syntactic methods. Empirically, we evaluate our method with a convolutional neural model across a range of sentiment analysis datasets. Compared with a baseline and the dropout method, our method achieves better overall performance.

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BIBI System Description: Building with CNNs and Breaking with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Yitong Li | Trevor Cohn | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Building Linguistically Generalizable NLP Systems

This paper describes our submission to the sentiment analysis sub-task of “Build It, Break It: The Language Edition (BIBI)”, on both the builder and breaker sides. As a builder, we use convolutional neural nets, trained on both phrase and sentence data. As a breaker, we use Q-learning to learn minimal change pairs, and apply a token substitution method automatically. We analyse the results to gauge the robustness of NLP systems.


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Learning Robust Representations of Text
Yitong Li | Trevor Cohn | Timothy Baldwin
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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Filter and Match Approach to Pair-wise Web URI Linking
S. Shivashankar | Yitong Li | Afshin Rahimi
Proceedings of the Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop 2016

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UniMelb at SemEval-2016 Task 3: Identifying Similar Questions by combining a CNN with String Similarity Measures
Timothy Baldwin | Huizhi Liang | Bahar Salehi | Doris Hoogeveen | Yitong Li | Long Duong
Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2016)


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A Machine Learning Method to Distinguish Machine Translation from Human Translation
Yitong Li | Rui Wang | Hai Zhao
Proceedings of the 29th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation: Posters


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Entity Linking for Tweets
Xiaohua Liu | Yitong Li | Haocheng Wu | Ming Zhou | Furu Wei | Yi Lu
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)


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Graph-Based Multi-Tweet Summarization using Social Signals
Xiaohua Liu | Yitong Li | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of COLING 2012