Query Focused Abstractive Summarization (QFAS) represents an abstractive summary from the source document based on a given query. To measure the performance of abstractive summarization tasks, different datasets have been broadly used. However, for QFAS tasks, only a limited number of datasets have been used, which are comparatively small and provide single sentence summaries. This paper presents a query generation approach, where we considered most similar words between documents and summaries for generating queries. By implementing our query generation approach, we prepared two relatively large datasets, namely CNN/DailyMail and Newsroom which contain multiple sentence summaries and can be used for future QFAS tasks. We also implemented a pre-processing approach to perform QFAS tasks using a pretrained language model, BERTSUM. In our pre-processing approach, we sorted the sentences of the documents from the most query-related sentences to the less query-related sentences. Then, we fine-tuned the BERTSUM model for generating the abstractive summaries. We also experimented on one of the largely used datasets, Debatepedia, to compare our QFAS approach with other models. The experimental results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art models on three ROUGE scores.
We propose a system that improves performance on single document summarization task using the CNN/DailyMail and Newsroom datasets. It follows the popular encoder-decoder paradigm, but with an extra focus on the encoder. The intuition is that the probability of correctly decoding an information significantly lies in the pattern and correctness of the encoder. Hence we introduce, encode –encode – decode. A framework that encodes the source text first with a transformer, then a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) model. We find that the transformer and seq2seq model complement themselves adequately, making for a richer encoded vector representation. We also find that paying more attention to the vocabulary of target words during abstraction improves performance. We experiment our hypothesis and framework on the task of extractive and abstractive single document summarization and evaluate using the standard CNN/DailyMail dataset and the recently released Newsroom dataset.
Paraphrase generation aims to improve the clarity of a sentence by using different wording that convey similar meaning. For better quality of generated paraphrases, we propose a framework that combines the effectiveness of two models – transformer and sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq). We design a two-layer stack of encoders. The first layer is a transformer model containing 6 stacked identical layers with multi-head self attention, while the second-layer is a seq2seq model with gated recurrent units (GRU-RNN). The transformer encoder layer learns to capture long-term dependencies, together with syntactic and semantic properties of the input sentence. This rich vector representation learned by the transformer serves as input to the GRU-RNN encoder responsible for producing the state vector for decoding. Experimental results on two datasets-QUORA and MSCOCO using our framework, produces a new benchmark for paraphrase generation.
In this work, we aim at developing an unsupervised abstractive summarization system in the multi-document setting. We design a paraphrastic sentence fusion model which jointly performs sentence fusion and paraphrasing using skip-gram word embedding model at the sentence level. Our model improves the information coverage and at the same time abstractiveness of the generated sentences. We conduct our experiments on the human-generated multi-sentence compression datasets and evaluate our system on several newly proposed Machine Translation (MT) evaluation metrics. Furthermore, we apply our sentence level model to implement an abstractive multi-document summarization system where documents usually contain a related set of sentences. We also propose an optimal solution for the classical summary length limit problem which was not addressed in the past research. For the document level summary, we conduct experiments on the datasets of two different domains (e.g., news article and user reviews) which are well suited for multi-document abstractive summarization. Our experiments demonstrate that the methods bring significant improvements over the state-of-the-art methods.
We study the problem of opinion question generation from sentences with the help of community-based question answering systems. For this purpose, we use a sequence to sequence attentional model, and we adopt coverage mechanism to prevent sentences from repeating themselves. Experimental results on the Amazon question/answer dataset show an improvement in automatic evaluation metrics as well as human evaluations from the state-of-the-art question generation systems.
We propose a submodular function-based summarization system which integrates three important measures namely importance, coverage, and non-redundancy to detect the important sentences for the summary. We design monotone and submodular functions which allow us to apply an efficient and scalable greedy algorithm to obtain informative and well-covered summaries. In addition, we integrate two abstraction-based methods namely sentence compression and merging for generating an abstractive sentence set. We design our summarization models for both generic and query-focused summarization. Experimental results on DUC-2004 and DUC-2007 datasets show that our generic and query-focused summarizers have outperformed the state-of-the-art summarization systems in terms of ROUGE-1 and ROUGE-2 recall and F-measure.
In this work, we aim at developing an extractive summarizer in the multi-document setting. We implement a rank based sentence selection using continuous vector representations along with key-phrases. Furthermore, we propose a model to tackle summary coherence for increasing readability. We conduct experiments on the Document Understanding Conference (DUC) 2004 datasets using ROUGE toolkit. Our experiments demonstrate that the methods bring significant improvements over the state of the art methods in terms of informativity and coherence.
Question Generation (QG) and Question Answering (QA) are some of the many challenges for natural language understanding and interfaces. As humans need to ask good questions, the potential benefits from automated QG systems may assist them in meeting useful inquiry needs. In this paper, we consider an automatic Sentence-to-Question generation task, where given a sentence, the Question Generation (QG) system generates a set of questions for which the sentence contains, implies, or needs answers. To facilitate the question generation task, we build elementary sentences from the input complex sentences using a syntactic parser. A named entity recognizer and a part of speech tagger are applied on each of these sentences to encode necessary information.We classify the sentences based on their subject, verb, object and preposition for determining the possible type of questions to be generated. We use the TREC-2007 (Question Answering Track) dataset for our experiments and evaluation.