Several methods have been proposed for classifying long textual documents using Transformers. However, there is a lack of consensus on a benchmark to enable a fair comparison among different approaches. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the relative efficacy measured against various baselines and diverse datasets — both in terms of accuracy as well as time and space overheads. Our datasets cover binary, multi-class, and multi-label classification tasks and represent various ways information is organized in a long text (e.g. information that is critical to making the classification decision is at the beginning or towards the end of the document). Our results show that more complex models often fail to outperform simple baselines and yield inconsistent performance across datasets. These findings emphasize the need for future studies to consider comprehensive baselines and datasets that better represent the task of long document classification to develop robust models.
Abstract Measuring bias is key for better understanding and addressing unfairness in NLP/ML models. This is often done via fairness metrics, which quantify the differences in a model’s behaviour across a range of demographic groups. In this work, we shed more light on the differences and similarities between the fairness metrics used in NLP. First, we unify a broad range of existing metrics under three generalized fairness metrics, revealing the connections between them. Next, we carry out an extensive empirical comparison of existing metrics and demonstrate that the observed differences in bias measurement can be systematically explained via differences in parameter choices for our generalized metrics.
In entity linking, mentions of named entities in raw text are disambiguated against a knowledge base (KB). This work focuses on linking to unseen KBs that do not have training data and whose schema is unknown during training. Our approach relies on methods to flexibly convert entities with several attribute-value pairs from arbitrary KBs into flat strings, which we use in conjunction with state-of-the-art models for zero-shot linking. We further improve the generalization of our model using two regularization schemes based on shuffling of entity attributes and handling of unseen attributes. Experiments on English datasets where models are trained on the CoNLL dataset, and tested on the TAC-KBP 2010 dataset show that our models are 12% (absolute) more accurate than baseline models that simply flatten entities from the target KB. Unlike prior work, our approach also allows for seamlessly combining multiple training datasets. We test this ability by adding both a completely different dataset (Wikia), as well as increasing amount of training data from the TAC-KBP 2010 training set. Our models are more accurate across the board compared to baselines.
In this paper, we propose a neural architecture and a set of training methods for ordering events by predicting temporal relations. Our proposed models receive a pair of events within a span of text as input and they identify temporal relations (Before, After, Equal, Vague) between them. Given that a key challenge with this task is the scarcity of annotated data, our models rely on either pretrained representations (i.e. RoBERTa, BERT or ELMo), transfer and multi-task learning (by leveraging complementary datasets), and self-training techniques. Experiments on the MATRES dataset of English documents establish a new state-of-the-art on this task.
Words in different languages rarely cover the exact same semantic space. This work characterizes differences in meaning between words across languages using semantic relations that have been used to relate the meaning of English words. However, because of translation ambiguity, semantic relations are not always preserved by translation. We introduce a cross-lingual relation classifier trained only with English examples and a bilingual dictionary. Our classifier relies on a novel attention-based distillation approach to account for translation ambiguity when transferring knowledge from English to cross-lingual settings. On new English-Chinese and English-Hindi test sets, the resulting models largely outperform baselines that more naively rely on bilingual embeddings or dictionaries for cross-lingual transfer, and approach the performance of fully supervised systems on English tasks.
Cross-lingual Hypernymy Detection involves determining if a word in one language (“fruit”) is a hypernym of a word in another language (“pomme” i.e. apple in French). The ability to detect hypernymy cross-lingually can aid in solving cross-lingual versions of tasks such as textual entailment and event coreference. We propose BiSparse-Dep, a family of unsupervised approaches for cross-lingual hypernymy detection, which learns sparse, bilingual word embeddings based on dependency contexts. We show that BiSparse-Dep can significantly improve performance on this task, compared to approaches based only on lexical context. Our approach is also robust, showing promise for low-resource settings: our dependency-based embeddings can be learned using a parser trained on related languages, with negligible loss in performance. We also crowd-source a challenging dataset for this task on four languages – Russian, French, Arabic, and Chinese. Our embeddings and datasets are publicly available.
Recognizing that even correct translations are not always semantically equivalent, we automatically detect meaning divergences in parallel sentence pairs with a deep neural model of bilingual semantic similarity which can be trained for any parallel corpus without any manual annotation. We show that our semantic model detects divergences more accurately than models based on surface features derived from word alignments, and that these divergences matter for neural machine translation.
Parallel corpora are often not as parallel as one might assume: non-literal translations and noisy translations abound, even in curated corpora routinely used for training and evaluation. We use a cross-lingual textual entailment system to distinguish sentence pairs that are parallel in meaning from those that are not, and show that filtering out divergent examples from training improves translation quality.
We introduce WHiC, a challenging testbed for detecting hypernymy, an asymmetric relation between words. While previous work has focused on detecting hypernymy between word types, we ground the meaning of words in specific contexts drawn from WordNet examples, and require predictions to be sensitive to changes in contexts. WHiC lets us analyze complementary properties of two approaches of inducing vector representations of word meaning in context. We show that such contextualized word representations also improve detection of a wider range of semantic relations in context.