Yong Cheng


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Multilingual Mix: Example Interpolation Improves Multilingual Neural Machine Translation
Yong Cheng | Ankur Bapna | Orhan Firat | Yuan Cao | Pidong Wang | Wolfgang Macherey
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Multilingual neural machine translation models are trained to maximize the likelihood of a mix of examples drawn from multiple language pairs. The dominant inductive bias applied to these models is a shared vocabulary and a shared set of parameters across languages; the inputs and labels corresponding to examples drawn from different language pairs might still reside in distinct sub-spaces. In this paper, we introduce multilingual crossover encoder-decoder (mXEncDec) to fuse language pairs at an instance level. Our approach interpolates instances from different language pairs into joint ‘crossover examples’ in order to encourage sharing input and output spaces across languages. To ensure better fusion of examples in multilingual settings, we propose several techniques to improve example interpolation across dissimilar languages under heavy data imbalance. Experiments on a large-scale WMT multilingual dataset demonstrate that our approach significantly improves quality on English-to-Many, Many-to-English and zero-shot translation tasks (from +0.5 BLEU up to +5.5 BLEU points). Results on code-switching sets demonstrate the capability of our approach to improve model generalization to out-of-distribution multilingual examples. We also conduct qualitative and quantitative representation comparisons to analyze the advantages of our approach at the representation level.


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AdvAug: Robust Adversarial Augmentation for Neural Machine Translation
Yong Cheng | Lu Jiang | Wolfgang Macherey | Jacob Eisenstein
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we propose a new adversarial augmentation method for Neural Machine Translation (NMT). The main idea is to minimize the vicinal risk over virtual sentences sampled from two vicinity distributions, in which the crucial one is a novel vicinity distribution for adversarial sentences that describes a smooth interpolated embedding space centered around observed training sentence pairs. We then discuss our approach, AdvAug, to train NMT models using the embeddings of virtual sentences in sequence-to-sequence learning. Experiments on Chinese-English, English-French, and English-German translation benchmarks show that AdvAug achieves significant improvements over theTransformer (up to 4.9 BLEU points), and substantially outperforms other data augmentation techniques (e.g.back-translation) without using extra corpora.

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Chinese Grammatical Error Detection Based on BERT Model
Yong Cheng | Mofan Duan
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

Automatic grammatical error correction is of great value in assisting second language writing. In 2020, the shared task for Chinese grammatical error diagnosis(CGED) was held in NLP-TEA. As the LDU team, we participated the competition and submitted the final results. Our work mainly focused on grammatical error detection, that is, to judge whether a sentence contains grammatical errors. We used the BERT pre-trained model for binary classification, and we achieve 0.0391 in FPR track, ranking the second in all teams. In error detection track, the accuracy, recall and F-1 of our submitted result are 0.9851, 0.7496 and 0.8514 respectively.


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An End-to-End Generative Architecture for Paraphrase Generation
Qian Yang | Zhouyuan Huo | Dinghan Shen | Yong Cheng | Wenlin Wang | Guoyin Wang | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Generating high-quality paraphrases is a fundamental yet challenging natural language processing task. Despite the effectiveness of previous work based on generative models, there remain problems with exposure bias in recurrent neural networks, and often a failure to generate realistic sentences. To overcome these challenges, we propose the first end-to-end conditional generative architecture for generating paraphrases via adversarial training, which does not depend on extra linguistic information. Extensive experiments on four public datasets demonstrate the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results, outperforming previous generative architectures on both automatic metrics (BLEU, METEOR, and TER) and human evaluations.

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Robust Neural Machine Translation with Doubly Adversarial Inputs
Yong Cheng | Lu Jiang | Wolfgang Macherey
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural machine translation (NMT) often suffers from the vulnerability to noisy perturbations in the input. We propose an approach to improving the robustness of NMT models, which consists of two parts: (1) attack the translation model with adversarial source examples; (2) defend the translation model with adversarial target inputs to improve its robustness against the adversarial source inputs. For the generation of adversarial inputs, we propose a gradient-based method to craft adversarial examples informed by the translation loss over the clean inputs. Experimental results on Chinese-English and English-German translation tasks demonstrate that our approach achieves significant improvements (2.8 and 1.6 BLEU points) over Transformer on standard clean benchmarks as well as exhibiting higher robustness on noisy data.

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Reducing Word Omission Errors in Neural Machine Translation: A Contrastive Learning Approach
Zonghan Yang | Yong Cheng | Yang Liu | Maosong Sun
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

While neural machine translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable success, NMT systems are prone to make word omission errors. In this work, we propose a contrastive learning approach to reducing word omission errors in NMT. The basic idea is to enable the NMT model to assign a higher probability to a ground-truth translation and a lower probability to an erroneous translation, which is automatically constructed from the ground-truth translation by omitting words. We design different types of negative examples depending on the number of omitted words, word frequency, and part of speech. Experiments on Chinese-to-English, German-to-English, and Russian-to-English translation tasks show that our approach is effective in reducing word omission errors and achieves better translation performance than three baseline methods.


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Towards Robust Neural Machine Translation
Yong Cheng | Zhaopeng Tu | Fandong Meng | Junjie Zhai | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Small perturbations in the input can severely distort intermediate representations and thus impact translation quality of neural machine translation (NMT) models. In this paper, we propose to improve the robustness of NMT models with adversarial stability training. The basic idea is to make both the encoder and decoder in NMT models robust against input perturbations by enabling them to behave similarly for the original input and its perturbed counterpart. Experimental results on Chinese-English, English-German and English-French translation tasks show that our approaches can not only achieve significant improvements over strong NMT systems but also improve the robustness of NMT models.


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A Teacher-Student Framework for Zero-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Yun Chen | Yang Liu | Yong Cheng | Victor O.K. Li
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

While end-to-end neural machine translation (NMT) has made remarkable progress recently, it still suffers from the data scarcity problem for low-resource language pairs and domains. In this paper, we propose a method for zero-resource NMT by assuming that parallel sentences have close probabilities of generating a sentence in a third language. Based on the assumption, our method is able to train a source-to-target NMT model (“student”) without parallel corpora available guided by an existing pivot-to-target NMT model (“teacher”) on a source-pivot parallel corpus. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly improves over a baseline pivot-based model by +3.0 BLEU points across various language pairs.


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Minimum Risk Training for Neural Machine Translation
Shiqi Shen | Yong Cheng | Zhongjun He | Wei He | Hua Wu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Semi-Supervised Learning for Neural Machine Translation
Yong Cheng | Wei Xu | Zhongjun He | Wei He | Hua Wu | Maosong Sun | Yang Liu
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)


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Query Lattice for Translation Retrieval
Meiping Dong | Yong Cheng | Yang Liu | Jia Xu | Maosong Sun | Tatsuya Izuha | Jie Hao
Proceedings of COLING 2014, the 25th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers


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Learning to Detect Hedges and their Scope Using CRF
Qi Zhao | Chengjie Sun | Bingquan Liu | Yong Cheng
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning – Shared Task

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CRF tagging for head recognition based on Stanford parser
Yong Cheng | Chengjie Sun | Bingquan Liu | Lei Lin
CIPS-SIGHAN Joint Conference on Chinese Language Processing